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Open AccessArticle

Quantification of Water, Protein and Soluble Sugar in Mulberry Leaves Using a Handheld Near-Infrared Spectrometer and Multivariate Analysis

1
School of Biotechnology, Jiangsu University of Science and Technology, Zhenjiang 212018, China
2
Sericultural Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Zhenjiang 212018, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Molecules 2019, 24(24), 4439; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24244439
Received: 3 October 2019 / Revised: 30 November 2019 / Accepted: 2 December 2019 / Published: 4 December 2019
Mulberry (Morus alba L.) leaves are not only used as the main feed for silkworms (Bombyx mori) but also as an added feed for livestock and poultry. In order to rapidly select high-quality mulberry leaves, a hand-held near-infrared (NIR) spectrometer combined with partial least squares (PLS) regression and wavelength optimization methods were used to establish a predictive model for the quantitative determination of water content in fresh mulberry leaves, as well as crude protein and soluble sugar in dried mulberry leaves. For the water content in fresh mulberry leaves, the R-square of the calibration set (R2 C), R-square of the cross-validation set (R2 CV) and R-square of the prediction set (R2 P) are 0.93, 0.90 and 0.91, respectively, the corresponding root mean square error of calibration set (RMSEC), root mean square error of cross-validation set (RMSECV) and root mean square error of prediction set (RMSEP) are 0.96%, 1.13%, and 1.18%, respectively. The R2 C, R2 CV and R2 P of the crude protein prediction model are 0.91, 0.83 and 0.92, respectively, and the corresponding RMSEC, RMSECV and RMSEP are 0.71%, 0.97% and 0.61%, respectively. The soluble sugar prediction model has R2 C, R2 CV, and R2 P of 0.64, 0.51, and 0.71, respectively, and the corresponding RMSEC, RMSECV, and RMSEP are 2.33%, 2.73%, and 2.36%, respectively. Therefore, the use of handheld NIR spectrometers combined with wavelength optimization can fastly detect the water content in fresh mulberry leaves and crude protein in dried mulberry leaves. However, it is a slightly lower predictive performance for soluble sugar in mulberry leaves.
Keywords: mulberry leaves; water content; crude protein; soluble sugar; near-infrared spectroscopy; hand-held spectrometers; wavelength selection mulberry leaves; water content; crude protein; soluble sugar; near-infrared spectroscopy; hand-held spectrometers; wavelength selection
MDPI and ACS Style

Ma, Y.; Zhang, G.-Z.; Rita-Cindy, S.-A. Quantification of Water, Protein and Soluble Sugar in Mulberry Leaves Using a Handheld Near-Infrared Spectrometer and Multivariate Analysis. Molecules 2019, 24, 4439.

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