Next Article in Journal
Construction of Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship (QSAR) Models to Predict Potency of Structurally Diversed Janus Kinase 2 Inhibitors
Previous Article in Journal
The Hydrophobicity of Lignocellulosic Fiber Network Can Be Enhanced with Suberin Fatty Acids
Previous Article in Special Issue
Immobilization of Naringinase from Penicillium decumbens on Chitosan Microspheres for Debittering Grapefruit Juice
Open AccessArticle

Improving the Yields and Reaction Rate in the Ethanolysis of Soybean Oil by Using Mixtures of Lipase CLEAs

1
Postgraduate Program in Chemical Engineering, Department of Chemical Engineering, Federal University of São Carlos, Rodovia Washington Luís, km 235, 13565-905 São Carlos, SP, Brazil
2
Departmento de Biocatálisis, ICP-CSIC, Campus UAM-CSIC, 28049 Madrid, Spain
3
Kopp Technologies (KTech), Rua Alfredo Lopes, 1717, Jardim Macarengo, 13560-190 São Carlos, SP, Brazil
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Derek J. McPhee
Molecules 2019, 24(23), 4392; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24234392
Received: 6 November 2019 / Revised: 27 November 2019 / Accepted: 29 November 2019 / Published: 1 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enzyme Immobilization and Its Applications)
Due to the heterogeneity of oils, the use of mixtures of lipases with different activity for a large number of glycerol-linked carboxylic acids that compose the substrate has been proposed as a better alternative than the use of one specific lipase preparation in the enzymatic synthesis of biodiesel. In this work, mixtures of lipases from different sources were evaluated in their soluble form in the ethanolysis of soybean oil. A mixture of lipases (50% of each lipase, in activity basis) from porcine pancreas (PPL) and Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase (TLL) gave the highest fatty acid ethyl ester (FAEE) yield (around 20 wt.%), while the individual lipases gave FAEE yields 100 and 5 times lower, respectively. These lipases were immobilized individually by the cross-linked enzyme aggregates (CLEAs) technique, yielding biocatalysts with 89 and 119% of expressed activity, respectively. A mixture of these CLEAs (also 50% of each lipase, in activity basis) gave 90.4 wt.% FAEE yield, while using separately CLEAs of PPL and TLL, the FAEE yields were 84.7 and 75.6 wt.%, respectively, under the same reaction conditions. The mixture of CLEAs could be reused (five cycles of 6 h) in the ethanolysis of soybean oil in a vortex flow-type reactor yielding an FAEE yield higher than 80% of that of the first batch. View Full-Text
Keywords: porcine pancreas lipase; Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase; mixture of CLEAs; soybean oil ethanolysis; vortex flow reactor; biodiesel porcine pancreas lipase; Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase; mixture of CLEAs; soybean oil ethanolysis; vortex flow reactor; biodiesel
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Ramos, M.D.; Miranda, L.P.; Fernandez-Lafuente, R.; Kopp, W.; Tardioli, P.W. Improving the Yields and Reaction Rate in the Ethanolysis of Soybean Oil by Using Mixtures of Lipase CLEAs. Molecules 2019, 24, 4392.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop