Phytofabrication of Silver/Silver Chloride Nanoparticles Using Aqueous Leaf Extract of Oedera genistifolia: Characterization and Antibacterial Potential
SAMRC Microbial Water Quality Monitoring Centre, University of Fort Hare, Alice 5700, South Africa
Applied and Environmental Microbiology Research Group (AEMREG), Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Fort Hare, Alice 5700, South Africa
Department of Chemistry, University of Fort Hare, Alice 5700, South Africa
Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, Rhodes University, Grahams Town 6140, South Africa
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Dino Musmarra and Sante Capasso
Molecules 2019, 24(23), 4382; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24234382
Received: 29 September 2019 / Revised: 19 November 2019 / Accepted: 21 November 2019 / Published: 30 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Compounds from Bio-Sources: Characterizations, Innovative Productions and Advanced Technological Applications)
In this present study, silver nanoparticles (Ag/AgCl NPs) were synthesized using an aqueous leaf extract of Oedera genistifolia as a reducing agent. The biosynthesized Ag/AgCl NPs was characterized by UV-visible spectrophotometry, transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). In addition, sequel to antibacterial assay, the cytotoxic effect of the phytofabricated Ag/AgCl NPs was assessed against the HeLa cell line (human cervix adenocarcinoma). The results of the characterization of the synthesized Ag/AgCl NPs indicate the successful synthesis using plant extract as a reducing agent, with UV-Vis spectra between 290–360 nm. TEM results showed that Ag/AgCl NPs was spherical in shape with an average size of 34.2 nm. EDX analysis revealed that the particles were predominantly composed of carbon, oxygen, chlorine, and silver, while FTIR identified major phytochemical compounds, which could be responsible for bio-reducing and capping potential. XRD analysis showed the crystallinity of Ag/AgCl NPs, with a face-centred cubic structure. The studied Ag/AgCl NPs had no cytotoxic effect on HeLa cells and exhibited antibacterial activity (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) 0.25–1 mg/mL; minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) 2–16 mg/mL) against both the Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria investigated. Findings from this study suggest that this plant as a good candidate for producing new antibacterial drugs.