This review deals with two overlapping issues, namely polymer chemistry and deep eutectic solvents (DESs). With regard to polymers, specific aspects of synthetic polymers, polymerization processes producing such polymers, and natural cellulose-based nanopolymers are evaluated. As for DESs, their compliance with green chemistry requirements, their basic properties and involvement in polymer chemistry are discussed. In addition to reviewing the state-of-the-art for selected kinds of polymers, the paper reveals further possibilities in the employment of DESs in polymer chemistry. As an example, the significance of DES polarity and polymer polarity to control polymerization processes, modify polymer properties, and synthesize polymers with a specific structure and behavior, is emphasized.
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