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Open AccessArticle

Assessing the Utility of Multiplexed Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry for Gluten Detection in Australian Breakfast Food Products

1
CSIRO Agriculture and Food, 306 Carmody Rd., St. Lucia, QLD 4067, Australia
2
Institute of Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Science, Henan Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Zhengzhou 450002, China
3
CSIRO Agriculture and Food, GPO Box 1700, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia
4
School of Science, Edith Cowan University, 270 Joondalup Dr., Joondalup, WA 6027, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Molecules 2019, 24(20), 3665; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24203665
Received: 26 September 2019 / Revised: 9 October 2019 / Accepted: 10 October 2019 / Published: 11 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exploring the OMICS Platforms in Food Analysis)
Coeliac disease (CD) is an autoimmune disorder triggered by the ingestion of gluten that is associated with gastrointestinal issues, including diarrhea, abdominal pain, and malabsorption. Gluten is a general name for a class of cereal storage proteins of wheat, barley, and rye that are notably resistant to gastrointestinal digestion. After ingestion, immunogenic peptides are subsequently recognized by T cells in the gastrointestinal tract. The only treatment for CD is a life-long gluten-free diet. As such, it is critical to detect gluten in diverse food types, including those where one would not expect to find gluten. The utility of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) using cereal-specific peptide markers to detect gluten in heavily processed food types was assessed. A range of breakfast products, including breakfast cereals, breakfast bars, milk-based breakfast drinks, powdered drinks, and a savory spread, were tested. No gluten was detected by LC-MS in the food products labeled gluten-free, yet enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) measurement revealed inconsistencies in barley-containing products. In products containing wheat, rye, barley, and oats as labeled ingredients, gluten proteins were readily detected using discovery proteomics. Panels comprising ten cereal-specific peptide markers were analyzed by targeted proteomics, providing evidence that LC-MS could detect and differentiate gluten in complex matrices, including baked goods and milk-based products. View Full-Text
Keywords: Coeliac disease (CD); gluten; peptide markers; liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) Coeliac disease (CD); gluten; peptide markers; liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS)
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MDPI and ACS Style

Li, H.; Bose, U.; Stockwell, S.; Howitt, C.A.; Colgrave, M. Assessing the Utility of Multiplexed Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry for Gluten Detection in Australian Breakfast Food Products. Molecules 2019, 24, 3665.

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