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Moose and Caribou as Novel Sources of Functional Lipids: Fatty Acid Esters of Hydroxy Fatty Acids, Diglycerides and Monoacetyldiglycerides

School of Science and the Environment/Boreal Ecosystem Research Initiative, Grenfell Campus, Memorial University of Newfoundland, 20 University Drive, Corner Brook, NL A2H 5G4, Canada
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Molecules 2019, 24(2), 232; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24020232
Received: 10 December 2018 / Revised: 3 January 2019 / Accepted: 4 January 2019 / Published: 10 January 2019
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Abstract

Fatty acid esters of hydroxy fatty acids (FAHFA), diglycerides (DG) and monoacetyldiglycerides (MAcDG) are gaining interest as functional lipids in pharmaceuticals and functional food formulations for managing and treating metabolic or inflammatory diseases. Herein, we investigated whether the antler and/or meat of two Cervids (moose and caribou) are novel sources of FAHFA, DG and MAcDG. We observed FAHFA present in moose and caribou composed mainly of polyunsaturated families, and that the esterification occurred frequently at the C5-hydroxy fatty acid moiety, most noticeably arachidonic acid 5-hydroxyeicosatrienoic acid (ARA-5-HERA). Moose antler, caribou and moose meat also contained significant levels of both 1,2-DG and 1,3-DG lipids. The 1,3-DG molecular species consisted mainly of 16:0/18:1, 18:0/16:0, and 18:0/18:1. On the other hand, major 1,2-DG species consisted of DG 18:0/18:0, 16:0/16:0 and 18:1/18:1 molecular species with higher levels in the antler compared to the meat. The molecular species composition of MAcDG was very simple and consisted of 14:2/18:2/2:0, 16:0/18:2/2:0, 16:0/18:1/2:0 and 18:0/18:1/2:0 with the first species 14:2/18:2/2:0 predominating in the tip of moose antlers. Increasing access to and knowledge of the presence of these functional lipids in foods will enhance their intake in the diet with potential implications in improving personal and population health. View Full-Text
Keywords: functional lipids; functional foods; fatty acid esters of hydroxy fatty acids; diglycerides; regioisomers; monoacetyldiglycerides functional lipids; functional foods; fatty acid esters of hydroxy fatty acids; diglycerides; regioisomers; monoacetyldiglycerides
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Pham, T.H.; Vidal, N.P.; Manful, C.F.; Fillier, T.A.; Pumphrey, R.P.; Doody, K.M.; Thomas, R.H. Moose and Caribou as Novel Sources of Functional Lipids: Fatty Acid Esters of Hydroxy Fatty Acids, Diglycerides and Monoacetyldiglycerides. Molecules 2019, 24, 232.

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