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Open AccessArticle

High-Throughput 1H-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance-Based Screening for the Identification and Quantification of Heartwood Diterpenic Acids in Four Black Pine (Pinus nigra Arn.) Marginal Provenances in Greece

1
Laboratory of Forest Genetics and Biotechnology, Institute of Mediterranean and Forest Ecosystems, Hellenic Agricultural Organization “Demeter”, Ilissia, 11528 Athens, Greece
2
Department of Pharmacognosy and Natural Products Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Athens, Panepistimiopolis Zografou, 15771 Athens, Greece
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Pavel B. Drasar and Vladimir A. Khripach
Molecules 2019, 24(19), 3603; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24193603
Received: 30 August 2019 / Revised: 26 September 2019 / Accepted: 1 October 2019 / Published: 7 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Terpenes and Terpene Derivatives)
A high-throughput quantitative Nuclear Magnetic Resonance 1H-NMR method was developed and applied to screen the quantity of the diterpenic resin acids in the heartwood of black pine, due to the renewed scientific interest in their medicinal properties and use in various diseases treatment. The 260 samples were taken from Pinus nigra clones, selected from four provenances of the Peloponnese (Greece), participating in a 35-year-old clonal seed orchard. Total resin acids per dry heartwood weight (dhw) varied greatly, ranging from 30.05 to 424.70 mg/gdhw (average 219.98 mg/gdhw). Abietic was the predominant acid (76.77 mg/gdhw), followed by palustric acid (47.94 mg/gdhw), neoabietic acid (39.34 mg/gdhw), and pimaric acid (22.54 mg/gdhw). Dehydroabietic acid was at moderate levels (11.69 mg/gdhw), while levopimaric, isopimaric, and sandaracopimaric acids were in lower concentrations. The resin acid fraction accounted for 72.33% of the total acetone extractives. Stilbenes were presented in significant quantities (19.70%). The resin acid content was composed mainly of the abietane type resin acids (83.56%). Peloponnesian Pinus nigra heartwood was found to be the richest source of resin acids identified to date and is considered the best natural source for the production of such bioactive extracts. The results indicate a high potential for effective selection and advanced breeding of pharmaceutical and high economic value bioactive substances from Pinus nigra clones. View Full-Text
Keywords: quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance; high-throughput screening; resin acids; diterpenes; Pinus nigra; provenances quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance; high-throughput screening; resin acids; diterpenes; Pinus nigra; provenances
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Ioannidis, K.; Melliou, E.; Magiatis, P. High-Throughput 1H-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance-Based Screening for the Identification and Quantification of Heartwood Diterpenic Acids in Four Black Pine (Pinus nigra Arn.) Marginal Provenances in Greece. Molecules 2019, 24, 3603.

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