Next Article in Journal
Experimental and DFT Study of the Photoluminescent Green Emission Band of Halogenated (−F, −Cl, and −Br) Imines
Previous Article in Journal
Catalpol in Diabetes and its Complications: A Review of Pharmacology, Pharmacokinetics, and Safety
Previous Article in Special Issue
Synthesis, Structural Confirmation, and Biosynthesis of 22-OH-PD1n-3 DPA
Open AccessReview

Chemical and Biocatalytic Routes to Arbutin

by 1,‡, 1,‡, 1,* and 2,3,*
1
State Key Laboratory of Biocatalysis and Enzyme Engineering, Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Green Transformation of Bio-Resources, Hubei Key Laboratory of Industrial Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Hubei University, Wuhan 430062, China
2
Max-Planck-Institut für Kohlenforschung, Kaiser-Wilhelm-Platz 1, 45470 Mülheim, Germany
3
Chemistry Department, Philipps-University, Hans-Meerwein-Str. 4, 35032 Marburg, Germany
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Dedicated to Professor Dieter Schinzer on the occasion of his 65th birthday.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Molecules 2019, 24(18), 3303; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24183303
Received: 3 August 2019 / Revised: 4 September 2019 / Accepted: 9 September 2019 / Published: 11 September 2019
Arbutin (also called β-arbutin) is a natural product occurring in the leaves of a variety of different plants, the bearberries of the Ericaceae and Saxifragaceae families being prominent examples. It is a β-glucoside derived from hydroquinone (HQ; 1,4-dihydroxybenzene). Arbutin has been identified in traditional Chinese folk medicines as having, inter alia, anti-microbial, anti-oxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties that useful in the treatment of different ailments including urinary diseases. Today, it is also used worldwide for the treatment of skin ailments by way of depigmenting, which means that arbutin is a component of many products in the cosmetics and healthcare industries. It is also relevant in the food industry. Hundreds of publications have appeared describing the isolation, structure determination, toxicology, synthesis, and biological properties of arbutin as well as the molecular mechanism of melanogenesis (tyrosinase inhibition). This review covers the most important aspects with special emphasis on the chemical and biocatalytic methods for the production of arbutin. View Full-Text
Keywords: arbutin; glycosyltransferases; glucosides; shikimate pathway; cosmetics; directed evolution; Chinese folk medicines arbutin; glycosyltransferases; glucosides; shikimate pathway; cosmetics; directed evolution; Chinese folk medicines
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Zhou, H.; Zhao, J.; Li, A.; Reetz, M.T. Chemical and Biocatalytic Routes to Arbutin . Molecules 2019, 24, 3303.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map

1
Back to TopTop