Characterization and Quantification of Major Flavonol Glycosides in Ramps (Allium tricoccum)
Division of Animal and Nutritional Sciences, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506, USA
Division of Plant and Soil Sciences, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506, USA
Shared Research Facilities, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Current Address: Biology Department, York University, Toronto, ON M3J 1P3, Canada
Molecules 2019, 24(18), 3281; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24183281
Received: 24 August 2019 / Revised: 4 September 2019 / Accepted: 5 September 2019 / Published: 9 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Phenolic and Polyphenolic Compounds)
The ramp (Allium tricoccum) is a traditional plant in the eastern Appalachian Mountains. Ramps have been used in traditional medicine for their health-promoting roles in lowering blood pressure and cholesterol. Information on the chemical composition of the potentially bioactive components in ramps is limited. Therefore, the aim of this work was to characterize and quantify major flavonols in ramps. Flavonoids were extracted in 50% methanol and 3% acetic acid. Characterization was conducted using UHPLC-PDA-MS and MS/MS, and quantification was performed using UHPLC-PDA detection. The major flavonol glycosides were kaempferol sophoroside glucuronide, quercetin sophoroside glucuronide, kaempferol rutinoside glucuronide, quercetin hexoside glucuronide, quercetin sophoroside, and kaempferol sophoroside. All conjugates were detected in leaves. Quercetin and kaempferol sophoroside glucuronide conjugates were detected in the stem, but no flavonol glycosides were detected in the bulb. The total amounts of the identified quercetin and kaempferol conjugates in whole ramps were 0.5972 ± 0.235 and 0.3792 ± 0.130 mg/g dry weight, respectively. Flavonol conjugates were concentrated in the leaves. To our knowledge, this work is the first to identify and quantify the major flavonol glycosides in ramps. Our findings suggest that specifically the leaves may harbor the potentially bioactive flavonols components of the plant.