Fungal phytotoxins used as ecofriendly bioherbicides are becoming efficient alternatives to chemical herbicides for sustainable weed management. Previous study found that cultures of the pathogenic fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides
BWH-1 showed phytotoxic activity. This study further isolated the major phytotoxin from cultures of the strain BWH-1 using bioactivity-guided isolation, by puncturing its host plant for an activity test and analyzing on the HPLC-DAD-3D mode for a purity check. Then, the active and pure phytotoxin was characterized as a dirhamnolipid (Rha-Rha-C10-C10) using the NMR, ESIMS, IR and UV methods. The herbicidal activity of dirhamnolipid was evaluated by the inhibition rate on the primary root length and the fresh plant weight of nine test plants, and the synergistic effect when combining with commercial herbicides. Dirhamnolipid exhibited broad herbicidal activity against eight weed species with IC50
values ranging from 28.91 to 217.71 mg L−1
and no toxicity on Oryza sativa
, and the herbicidal activity could be synergistically improved combining dirhamnolipid with commercial herbicides. Thus, dirhamnolipid that originated from C. gloeosporioides
BWH-1 displayed the potential to be used as a bioherbicide alone, or as an adjuvant added into commercial herbicides, leading to a decrease in herbicides concentration and increased control efficiency.
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