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Open AccessArticle

Dirhamnolipid Produced by the Pathogenic Fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides BWH-1 and Its Herbicidal Activity

Key Lab of Natural Pesticides & Chemical Biology, Ministry of Education, Department of Pesticide Science, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510642, China
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Academic Editor: Antonio Evidente
Molecules 2019, 24(16), 2969; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24162969
Received: 5 July 2019 / Revised: 14 August 2019 / Accepted: 14 August 2019 / Published: 16 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Compound to Biocontrol Agrarian Pests)
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Abstract

Fungal phytotoxins used as ecofriendly bioherbicides are becoming efficient alternatives to chemical herbicides for sustainable weed management. Previous study found that cultures of the pathogenic fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides BWH-1 showed phytotoxic activity. This study further isolated the major phytotoxin from cultures of the strain BWH-1 using bioactivity-guided isolation, by puncturing its host plant for an activity test and analyzing on the HPLC-DAD-3D mode for a purity check. Then, the active and pure phytotoxin was characterized as a dirhamnolipid (Rha-Rha-C10-C10) using the NMR, ESIMS, IR and UV methods. The herbicidal activity of dirhamnolipid was evaluated by the inhibition rate on the primary root length and the fresh plant weight of nine test plants, and the synergistic effect when combining with commercial herbicides. Dirhamnolipid exhibited broad herbicidal activity against eight weed species with IC50 values ranging from 28.91 to 217.71 mg L−1 and no toxicity on Oryza sativa, and the herbicidal activity could be synergistically improved combining dirhamnolipid with commercial herbicides. Thus, dirhamnolipid that originated from C. gloeosporioides BWH-1 displayed the potential to be used as a bioherbicide alone, or as an adjuvant added into commercial herbicides, leading to a decrease in herbicides concentration and increased control efficiency. View Full-Text
Keywords: biopesticide; bioherbicide; phytotoxin; rhamnolipid; biosurfactant; Colletotrichum; secondary metabolite; synergy biopesticide; bioherbicide; phytotoxin; rhamnolipid; biosurfactant; Colletotrichum; secondary metabolite; synergy
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Xu, Z.; Shi, M.; Tian, Y.; Zhao, P.; Niu, Y.; Liao, M. Dirhamnolipid Produced by the Pathogenic Fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides BWH-1 and Its Herbicidal Activity. Molecules 2019, 24, 2969.

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