Next Article in Journal
Minimal Structural Changes Determine Full and Partial Nicotinic Receptor Agonist Activity for Nicotine Analogues
Next Article in Special Issue
Clotrimazole Loaded Ufosomes for Topical Delivery: Formulation Development and In-Vitro Studies
Previous Article in Journal
Effect of Fiber Surface Modification on the Interfacial Adhesion and Thermo-Mechanical Performance of Unidirectional Epoxy-Based Composites Reinforced with Bamboo Fibers
Open AccessArticle

Development and Optimization of Alpha-Pinene-Loaded Solid Lipid Nanoparticles (SLN) Using Experimental Factorial Design and Dispersion Analysis

1
Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Coimbra (FFUC), Pólo das Ciências da Saúde, Azinhaga de Santa Comba, 3000-548 Coimbra, Portugal
2
Faculty of Chemistry, Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań, 61-712 Poznań, Poland
3
CREA-Research Centre for Food and Nutrition, Via Ardeatina 546, 00178 Rome, Italy
4
Dipartimento di Scienze biomediche, odontoiatriche e delle immagini morfologiche e funzionali, Università degli Studi di Messina, Polo Universitario Annunziata, 98168 Messina, Italy
5
Department of Pharmacy, University of Napoli Federico II, 80138 Napoli NA, Italy
6
Department of Biology and Environment, University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro (UTAD), Quinta de Prados, P-5001-801 Vila Real, Portugal
7
Centre for Research and Technology of Agro-Environmental and Biological Sciences (CITAB), University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro (UTAD), P-5001-801 Vila Real, Portugal
8
CEB - Centre of Biological Engineering, University of Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga, Portugal
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Rita Cortesi
Molecules 2019, 24(15), 2683; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24152683
Received: 15 June 2019 / Revised: 16 July 2019 / Accepted: 23 July 2019 / Published: 24 July 2019
The encapsulation of bicyclic monoterpene α-pinene into solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) is reported using experimental factorial design, followed by high-end dispersion analyzer LUMiSizer®. This equipment allows the characterization of the α-pinene-loaded SLN instability phenomena (e.g., sedimentation, flotation or coagulation), as well as the determination of the velocity distribution in the centrifugal field and the particle size distribution. In this work, SLN were produced by hot high-pressure homogenization technique. The influence of the independent variables, surfactant and lipid ratio on the physicochemical properties of SLN, such as mean particle size (Z-Ave), polydispersity index (PDI) and zeta potential (ZP), was estimated using a 22-factorial design. The Z-Ave and PDI were analyzed by dynamic light scattering, while ZP measurements were recorded by electrophoretic light scattering. Based on the obtained results, the optimal SLN dispersion was composed of 1 wt.% of α-pinene, 4 wt.% of solid lipid (Imwitor® 900 K) and 2.5 wt.% of surfactant (Poloxamer 188), depicting 136.7 nm of Z-Ave, 0.170 of PDI and 0 mV of ZP. Furthermore, LUMISizer® has been successfully used in the stability analysis of α-pinene-loaded SLN. View Full-Text
Keywords: α-pinene; solid lipid nanoparticles; factorial design; optimization; dispersion analyzer; instability phenomena α-pinene; solid lipid nanoparticles; factorial design; optimization; dispersion analyzer; instability phenomena
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Zielińska, A.; Ferreira, N.R.; Durazzo, A.; Lucarini, M.; Cicero, N.; Mamouni, S.E.; Silva, A.M.; Nowak, I.; Santini, A.; Souto, E.B. Development and Optimization of Alpha-Pinene-Loaded Solid Lipid Nanoparticles (SLN) Using Experimental Factorial Design and Dispersion Analysis. Molecules 2019, 24, 2683.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop