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Open AccessArticle

Detection of 13 Ginsenosides (Rb1, Rb2, Rc, Rd, Re, Rf, Rg1, Rg3, Rh2, F1, Compound K, 20(S)-Protopanaxadiol, and 20(S)-Protopanaxatriol) in Human Plasma and Application of the Analytical Method to Human Pharmacokinetic Studies Following Two Week-Repeated Administration of Red Ginseng Extract

1
College of Pharmacy, Dankook University, Cheon-an 31116, Korea
2
College of Pharmacy and Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 41566, Korea
3
Clinical Trial Center, Kyungpook National University Hospital, Daegu 41944, Korea
4
Department of Biomedical Science, BK21 Plus KNU Bio-Medical Convergence Program for Creative Talent, College of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 41944, Korea
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: In-Soo Yoon and Hyun-Jong Cho
Molecules 2019, 24(14), 2618; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24142618
Received: 19 June 2019 / Revised: 10 July 2019 / Accepted: 17 July 2019 / Published: 18 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Method Development and Validation in Food and Pharmaceutical Analysis)
We aimed to develop a sensitive method for detecting 13 ginsenosides using liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry and to apply this method to pharmacokinetic studies in human following repeated oral administration of red ginseng extract. The chromatograms of Rb1, Rb2, Rc, Rd, Re, Rf, Rg1, Rg3, Rh2, F1, compound K (CK), protopanaxadiol (PPD), and protopanaxatriol (PPT) in human plasma were well separated. The calibration curve range for 13 ginsenosides was 0.5–200 ng/mL and the lower limit of quantitation was 0.5 ng/mL for all ginsenosides. The inter- and intra-day accuracy, precision, and stability were less than 15%. Among the 13 ginsenosides tested, nine ginsenosides (Rb1, Rb2, Rc, Rd, Rg3, CK, Rh2, PPD, and PPT) were detected in the human plasma samples. The plasma concentrations of Rb1, Rb2, Rc, Rd, and Rg3 were correlated with the content in red ginseng extract; however, CK, Rh2, PPD, and PPT were detected although they are not present in red ginseng extract, suggesting the formation of these ginsenosides through the human metabolism. In conclusion, our analytical method could be effectively used to evaluate pharmacokinetic properties of ginsenosides, which would be useful for establishing the pharmacokinetic–pharmacodymic relationship of ginsenosides as well as ginsenoside metabolism in humans. View Full-Text
Keywords: ginsenosides; red ginseng extract; pharmacokinetics; human ginsenosides; red ginseng extract; pharmacokinetics; human
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MDPI and ACS Style

Jin, S.; Jeon, J.-H.; Lee, S.; Kang, W.Y.; Seong, S.J.; Yoon, Y.-R.; Choi, M.-K.; Song, I.-S. Detection of 13 Ginsenosides (Rb1, Rb2, Rc, Rd, Re, Rf, Rg1, Rg3, Rh2, F1, Compound K, 20(S)-Protopanaxadiol, and 20(S)-Protopanaxatriol) in Human Plasma and Application of the Analytical Method to Human Pharmacokinetic Studies Following Two Week-Repeated Administration of Red Ginseng Extract. Molecules 2019, 24, 2618.

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