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Open AccessArticle

Interactions between β-Lactoglobulin and 3,3′-Diindolylmethane in Model System

Key Laboratory of Dairy Science, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030, Heilongjiang, China
Department of Food Science, College of Food Science and Engineering, Jilin University, Changchun 130062, Jilin, China
Department of Nutrition and Food Sciences, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT 05405, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Yangchao Luo
Molecules 2019, 24(11), 2151;
Received: 8 May 2019 / Revised: 31 May 2019 / Accepted: 6 June 2019 / Published: 7 June 2019
The compound 3,3′-diindolylmethane (DIM) has a broad spectrum of anticancer activities. However, low stability and bioavailability limit its application. Elucidating interactions between DIM and β-lactoglobulin (β-LG) may be useful for fabricating whey protein-based protecting systems. Interaction with DIM increased the diameter and absolute zeta potential value of β-LG. UV-absorption spectra suggested that there was a complex of DIM and β-LG. β-LG showed enhanced fluorescence intensity by complexing with DIM with a binding constant of 6.7 × 105 M−1. Upon interaction with DIM, β-LG was decreased in secondary structure content of helix and turn while increased in β-sheet and unordered. FT-IR spectra and molecular docking results indicated the roles of hydrophobic interaction and hydrogen bond for the formation of DIM and β-LG nanocomplexes. Data suggested that β-LG may be a good vehicle for making a protein-based DIM protection and delivery system due to the tight binding of DIM to β-LG. View Full-Text
Keywords: 3,3′-diindolylmethane; β-lactoglobulin; spectroscopic analysis; molecular docking 3,3′-diindolylmethane; β-lactoglobulin; spectroscopic analysis; molecular docking
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Wang, C.; Zhou, X.; Wang, H.; Sun, X.; Guo, M. Interactions between β-Lactoglobulin and 3,3′-Diindolylmethane in Model System. Molecules 2019, 24, 2151.

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