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Open AccessArticle

Comparison of Four Extraction Techniques for the Evaluation of Volatile Compounds in Spray-Dried New Zealand Sheep Milk

Department of Food Science, University of Otago, PO Box 56, Dunedin 9054, New Zealand
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Molecules 2019, 24(10), 1917;
Received: 17 April 2019 / Revised: 14 May 2019 / Accepted: 17 May 2019 / Published: 18 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Instrumental Analysis for Volatile Odorants and Flavours)
Recent growth and diversification of sheep milk products means more sophisticated methods are required to ensure their flavour quality. The objective of this study was to compare four extraction techniques for the analysis of volatile compounds in sheep milk by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Solvent Assisted Flavour Evaporation (SAFE), Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME), Headspace Sorptive Extraction (HSSE) and Stir Bar Sorptive Extraction (SBSE) were evaluated for their sensitivity, selectivity, reproducibility, and overall efficiency. A total of 48 volatile compounds from nine compound classes were identified in the spray-dried sheep milk. Alcohols, aldehydes, alkanes, carboxylic acids, ketones, lactones, sulphur compounds, nitrogen compounds, and terpenes were all present, but the differences between the methods were most apparent for lactones. SBSE extracted eight lactones, SAFE extracted four lactones and HSSE and SPME only detected trace levels of two lactones. Six of the lactones—δ-hexa-lactone, δ-octalactone, γ-decalactone, γ-dodecalactone, δ-tetradecalactone, and δ-hexadeca-lactone—were identified for the first time in spray-dried sheep milk. The present work demonstrated that SBSE is an effective tool for the extraction and analysis of volatiles, especially lactones, in sheep milk and dairy products in general. A discussion of the benefits and limitations of each method is included. View Full-Text
Keywords: sheep milk; volatiles; flavour; lactone; extraction method sheep milk; volatiles; flavour; lactone; extraction method
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High, R.; Bremer, P.; Kebede, B.; Eyres, G.T. Comparison of Four Extraction Techniques for the Evaluation of Volatile Compounds in Spray-Dried New Zealand Sheep Milk. Molecules 2019, 24, 1917.

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