Black Ginseng and Its Saponins: Preparation, Phytochemistry and Pharmacological Effects
AbstractBlack ginseng is a type of processed ginseng that is prepared from white or red ginseng by steaming and drying several times. This process causes extensive changes in types and amounts of secondary metabolites. The chief secondary metabolites in ginseng are ginsenosides (dammarane-type triterpene saponins), which transform into less polar ginsenosides in black ginseng by steaming. In addition, apparent changes happen to other secondary metabolites such as the increase in the contents of phenolic compounds, reducing sugars and acidic polysaccharides in addition to the decrease in concentrations of free amino acids and total polysaccharides. Furthermore, the presence of some Maillard reaction products like maltol was also engaged. These obvious chemical changes were associated with a noticeable superiority for black ginseng over white and red ginseng in most of the comparative biological studies. This review article is an attempt to illustrate different methods of preparation of black ginseng, major chemical changes of saponins and other constituents after steaming as well as the reported biological activities of black ginseng, its major saponins and other metabolites. View Full-Text
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Metwaly, A.M.; Lianlian, Z.; Luqi, H.; Deqiang, D. Black Ginseng and Its Saponins: Preparation, Phytochemistry and Pharmacological Effects. Molecules 2019, 24, 1856.
Metwaly AM, Lianlian Z, Luqi H, Deqiang D. Black Ginseng and Its Saponins: Preparation, Phytochemistry and Pharmacological Effects. Molecules. 2019; 24(10):1856.Chicago/Turabian Style
Metwaly, Ahmed M.; Lianlian, Zhu; Luqi, Huang; Deqiang, Dou. 2019. "Black Ginseng and Its Saponins: Preparation, Phytochemistry and Pharmacological Effects." Molecules 24, no. 10: 1856.
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