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Molecular Repolarisation of Tumour-Associated Macrophages

1
Department of Tumor Immunology, Radboud Institute for Molecular Life Sciences, Radboud University Medical Centre, 6525 GA Nijmegen, The Netherlands
2
Department of Bio-Organic Chemistry, Institute for Complex Molecular Systems, Eindhoven University of Technology, 5600 MB Eindhoven, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Molecules 2019, 24(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24010009
Received: 21 November 2018 / Revised: 17 December 2018 / Accepted: 19 December 2018 / Published: 20 December 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Medicinal Chemistry)
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Abstract

The tumour microenvironment (TME) is composed of extracellular matrix and non-mutated cells supporting tumour growth and development. Tumour-associated macrophages (TAMs) are among the most abundant immune cells in the TME and are responsible for the onset of a smouldering inflammation. TAMs play a pivotal role in oncogenic processes as tumour proliferation, angiogenesis and metastasis, and they provide a barrier against the cytotoxic effector function of T lymphocytes and natural killer (NK) cells. However, TAMs are highly plastic cells that can adopt either pro- or anti-inflammatory roles in response to environmental cues. Consequently, TAMs represent an attractive target to recalibrate immune responses in the TME. Initial TAM-targeted strategies, such as macrophage depletion or disruption of TAM recruitment, have shown beneficial effects in preclinical models and clinical trials. Alternatively, reprogramming TAMs towards a proinflammatory and tumouricidal phenotype has become an attractive strategy in immunotherapy. This work summarises the molecular wheelwork of macrophage biology and presents an overview of molecular strategies to repolarise TAMs in immunotherapy. View Full-Text
Keywords: tumour-associated macrophages; repolarisation; cancer immunotherapy; tumour microenvironment; small molecules tumour-associated macrophages; repolarisation; cancer immunotherapy; tumour microenvironment; small molecules
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Van Dalen, F.J.; Van Stevendaal, M.H.M.E.; Fennemann, F.L.; Verdoes, M.; Ilina, O. Molecular Repolarisation of Tumour-Associated Macrophages. Molecules 2019, 24, 9.

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