Prostate cancer is the most common cancer among men. Green tea consumption is reported to play an important role in the prevention of carcinogenesis in many types of malignancies, including prostate cancer; however, epidemiological studies show conflicting results regarding these anti-cancer effects. In recent years, in addition to prevention, many investigators have shown the efficacy and safety of green tea polyphenols and combination therapies with green tea extracts and anti-cancer agents in in vivo and in vitro studies. Furthermore, numerous studies have revealed the molecular mechanisms of the anti-cancer effects of green tea extracts. We believe that improved understanding of the detailed pathological roles at the molecular level is important to evaluate the prevention and treatment of prostate cancer. Therefore, in this review, we present current knowledge regarding the anti-cancer effects of green tea extracts in the prevention and treatment of prostate cancer, with a particular focus on the molecular mechanisms of action, such as influencing tumor growth, apoptosis, androgen receptor signaling, cell cycle, and various malignant behaviors. Finally, the future direction for the use of green tea extracts as treatment strategies in patients with prostate cancer is introduced.
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