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Lignans in Spirits: Chemical Diversity, Quantification, and Sensory Impact of (±)-Lyoniresinol

Unité de recherche Œnologie, EA 4577, USC 1366 INRA, Université de Bordeaux, ISVV, 33882 Villenave d’Ornon, France
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: David Barker
Molecules 2019, 24(1), 117;
Received: 15 November 2018 / Revised: 24 December 2018 / Accepted: 25 December 2018 / Published: 30 December 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lignans)
PDF [1466 KB, uploaded 30 December 2018]


During barrel aging, spirits undergo organoleptic changes caused by the release of aroma and taste compounds. Recently, studies have revealed the bitter properties of oak wood lignans, such as (±)-lyoniresinol, and their contribution to wine taste. To evaluate the impact of lignans in spirits, a targeted screening of 11 compounds was set up and served to validate their presence in this matrix, implying their release by oak wood during aging. After development and validation of a quantification method, the most abundant and the bitterest lignan, (±)-lyoniresinol, was assayed by liquid chromatography–high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) in spirits. Its gustatory detection threshold was established at 2.6 mg/L in spirits. A large number of samples quantified were above this detection threshold, which suggests its effect of increased bitterness in spirit taste. Significant variations were observed in commercial spirits, with concentrations ranging from 0.2 to 11.8 mg/L, which could be related to differences in barrel aging processes. In “eaux-de-vie” of cognac, concentrations of (±)-lyoniresinol were observed in the range from 1.6 mg/L to 12 mg/L. Lower concentrations were measured for older vintages. View Full-Text
Keywords: Lignan; bitterness; taste-active compound; quantification; oak ageing Lignan; bitterness; taste-active compound; quantification; oak ageing

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Winstel, D.; Marchal, A. Lignans in Spirits: Chemical Diversity, Quantification, and Sensory Impact of (±)-Lyoniresinol. Molecules 2019, 24, 117.

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