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Open AccessArticle

Classification of Raw Stingless Bee Honeys by Bee Species Origins Using the NMR- and LC-MS-Based Metabolomics Approach

1
Laboratory of Natural Products, Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
2
Syamille Agrofarm & Resort Sdn. Bhd., Lot 3749 & 3750, Jalan Lata Perahu, Kampung Chuar Hulu, Mukim Chegar Galah, 33020 Kati, Kuala Kangsar, Perak, Malaysia
3
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Kulliyyah of Pharmacy, International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM), Jalan Sultan Ahmad Shah, Bandar Indera Mahkota, 25200 Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia
4
Biotechnology Research Institute, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Jalan UMS, 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Molecules 2018, 23(9), 2160; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23092160
Received: 16 July 2018 / Revised: 30 July 2018 / Accepted: 31 July 2018 / Published: 28 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
The official standard for quality control of honey is currently based on physicochemical properties. However, this method is time-consuming, cost intensive, and does not lead to information on the originality of honey. This study aims to classify raw stingless bee honeys by bee species origins as a potential classifier using the NMR-LCMS-based metabolomics approach. Raw stingless bee honeys were analysed and classified by bee species origins using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) spectroscopy and an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF MS) in combination with chemometrics tools. The honey samples were able to be classified into three different groups based on the bee species origins of Heterotrigona itama, Geniotrigona thoracica, and Tetrigona apicalis. d-Fructofuranose (H. itama honey), β-d-Glucose, d-Xylose, α-d-Glucose (G. thoracica honey), and l-Lactic acid, Acetic acid, l-Alanine (T. apicalis honey) ident d-Fructofuranose identified via 1H-NMR data and the diagnostic ions of UHPLC-QTOF MS were characterized as the discriminant metabolites or putative chemical markers. It could be suggested that the quality of honey in terms of originality and purity can be rapidly determined using the classification technique by bee species origins via the 1H-NMR- and UHPLC-QTOF MS-based metabolomics approach. View Full-Text
Keywords: classification; stingless bee honey; bee species origins; metabolomics; NMR; LC-MS; chemometrics classification; stingless bee honey; bee species origins; metabolomics; NMR; LC-MS; chemometrics
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Razali, M.T.A.; Zainal, Z.A.; Maulidiani, M.; Shaari, K.; Zamri, Z.; Mohd Idrus, M.Z.; Khatib, A.; Abas, F.; Ling, Y.S.; Rui, L.L.; Ismail, I.S. Classification of Raw Stingless Bee Honeys by Bee Species Origins Using the NMR- and LC-MS-Based Metabolomics Approach. Molecules 2018, 23, 2160.

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