This study presents the effect of two new products based on atomized extracts from edible wild mushrooms (RoBioMush1, RoBioMush2) on the microbiota of three target groups: clinically healthy (NG) individuals, individuals with nutritional disorders (ND), and individuals with cardiovascular diseases (CVD). The microbiota fingerprints were determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Modulations in the simulated microbiome were established and correlated with the presence of phenolic compounds released in the in vitro environment (a three-stage culture system GIS2 simulator, www.gissystems.ro). The high metabolizing capacity of NG and CVD correlated positively with the rest of the biological activities expressed in vitro. ND microbiota consumed a wide spectrum of monosaccharides from the products. Xylose was present in large quantities in the descending segment (minimum: 175 μg/mL for ND). The primary conclusion was that the microbiological ecosystem was modulated, as proven by the presence of specific biomarkers (e.g., ammonium levels and fingerprints of short-chain fatty acids–SCFAs), which stimulate the organism’s health status and were correlated with the restoration of a normal microbiota fingerprint.
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