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Optimization of Oligosaccharide Production from Leuconostoc lactis Using a Response Surface Methodology and the Immunostimulating Effects of These Oligosaccharides on Macrophage Cells

1
Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, Gachon University, Seongnam 13120, Korea
2
Food Nutrition Major, School of Food, Chungkang College of Cultural Industries, Icheon 17390, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Molecules 2018, 23(9), 2118; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23092118
Received: 23 July 2018 / Revised: 21 August 2018 / Accepted: 21 August 2018 / Published: 23 August 2018
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Abstract

Production of oligosaccharides from Leuconostoc lactis CCK940 was optimized using a response surface methodology with a central composite design. Culture temperature and the concentrations of sucrose and maltose were used as the main factors. The predicted optimum conditions for the production of oligosaccharides were a culture temperature of 30 °C, a sucrose concentration of 9.6% (w/v), and a maltose concentration of 7.4% (w/v). Using these optimal conditions, Leuconostoc lactis CCK940 was cultured using a fermenter to produce oligosaccharides, and the resulting oligosaccharides with a degree of polymerization greater than 4 were purified by Bio-gel P2 gel permeation column chromatography and then lyophilized. When macrophages were treated with the purified oligosaccharides at concentrations of 0.1–10 mg/mL, no cytotoxicity towards the macrophages was observed. However, nitric oxide production levels were similar to those following treatment with 1 μg/mL lipopolysaccharide. The mRNA expression levels of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, and inducible nitric oxide synthase were all also increased in a dose-dependent manner following treatment with the oligosaccharides. These data suggest that oligosaccharides produced by Leuconostoc lactis CCK940 could be used as an immune enhancer of macrophages. View Full-Text
Keywords: response surface methodology; central composite design; oligosaccharide; optimization; immunostimulation; RAW264.7; lactic acid bacteria response surface methodology; central composite design; oligosaccharide; optimization; immunostimulation; RAW264.7; lactic acid bacteria
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Lee, S.; Park, G.-G.; Jang, J.-K.; Park, Y.-S. Optimization of Oligosaccharide Production from Leuconostoc lactis Using a Response Surface Methodology and the Immunostimulating Effects of These Oligosaccharides on Macrophage Cells. Molecules 2018, 23, 2118.

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