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Molecules 2018, 23(6), 1294; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23061294

Viability, Enzymatic and Protein Profiles of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilm and Planktonic Cells after Monomeric/Gemini Surfactant Treatment

1
Institute of Fermentation Technology and Microbiology, Faculty of Biotechnology and Food Science, Lodz University of Technology, Wólczańska 171/173, 90-924 Lodz, Poland
2
Laboratory of Microbiocides Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznan, Umultowska 89b, 61-614 Poznan, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 16 April 2018 / Revised: 23 May 2018 / Accepted: 26 May 2018 / Published: 28 May 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibacterial Materials and Coatings 2018)
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Abstract

This study set out to investigate the biological activity of monomeric surfactants dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide (DTAB) and the next generation gemini surfactant hexamethylene-1,6-bis-(N,N-dimethyl-N-dodecylammonium bromide) (C6) against the environmental strain Pseudomonas aeruginosa PB_1. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were determined using the dilution method. The viability of the planktonic cells and biofilm was assessed using the plate count method. Enzymatic profile was determined using the API-ZYM system. Proteins were extracted from the biofilm and planktonic cells and analysed using SDS-PAGE. The MIC of the gemini surfactants was 70 times lower than that of its monomeric analogue. After 4 h of treatment at MIC (0.0145 mM for C6 and 1.013 mM for DTAB), the number of viable planktonic cells was reduce by less than 3 logarithm units. At the concentration ≥MIC, a reduction in the number of viable cells was observed in mature biofilms (p < 0.05). Treatment for 4 h with gemini surfactant at 20 MIC caused complete biofilm eradication. At sub-MIC, the concentration of some enzymes reduced and their protein profiles changed. The results of this study show that due to its superior antibacterial activity, gemini compound C6 can be applied as an effective microbiocide against P. aeruginosa in both planktonic and biofilm forms. View Full-Text
Keywords: gemini surfactants (GS); antibiofilm activity; Pseudomonas; proteins profile; polipropylene gemini surfactants (GS); antibiofilm activity; Pseudomonas; proteins profile; polipropylene
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Koziróg, A.; Otlewska, A.; Brycki, B. Viability, Enzymatic and Protein Profiles of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilm and Planktonic Cells after Monomeric/Gemini Surfactant Treatment. Molecules 2018, 23, 1294.

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