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Molecules 2018, 23(5), 1187;

The Antimicrobial Activity of Annona emarginata (Schltdl.) H. Rainer and Most Active Isolated Compounds against Clinically Important Bacteria

Faculty of Chemistry Biochemistry and Pharmacy, National University of San Luis, Chacabuco 917, 5700 San Luis, Argentina
Institute of Biotechnology-Institute of Basic Sciences, National University of San Juan, Av. Libertador General San Martin 1109, 5400 San Juan, Argentina
Institute of Chemistry, University of Silesia, 75 Pulku Piechoty 1, 41500 Chorzow, Poland
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Comenius University, Odbojarov 10, 83232 Bratislava, Slovakia
Multidisciplinary Institute of Biological Research IMIBIO-CONICET, Chacabuco 917, 5700 San Luis, Argentina
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 24 April 2018 / Revised: 9 May 2018 / Accepted: 10 May 2018 / Published: 16 May 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
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Annona emarginata (Schltdl.) H. Rainer, commonly known as “arachichú”, “araticú”, “aratigú”, and “yerba mora”, is a plant that grows in Argentina. Infusions and decoctions are used in folk medicine as a gargle against throat pain and for calming toothache; another way to use the plant for these purposes is chewing its leaves. Extracts from bark, flowers, leaves, and fruits from A. emarginata were subjected to antibacterial assays against a panel of Gram (+) and Gram (−) pathogenic bacteria according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute protocols. Extracts from the stem bark and leaves showed moderate activity against the bacteria tested with values between 250–1000 µg/mL. Regarding flower extracts, less polar extracts (hexane, dichloromethane) showed very strong antibacterial activity against methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and methicillin-resistant S. aureus ATCC 43300 with values between 16–125 µg/mL. Additionally, hexane extract showed activity against Klebsiella pneumoniae (MIC = 250 µg/mL). The global methanolic extract of the fruits (MeOHGEF) was also active against the three strains mentioned above, with MICs values 250–500 µg/mL. Bioassay-guided fractionation of MeOHGEF led to the isolation of a new main compound—(R)-2-(4-methylcyclohex-3-en-1-yl)propan-2-yl (E)-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)acrylate (1). The structure and relative configurations have been determined by means of 1D and 2D NMR techniques, including COSY, HMQC, HMBC, and NOESY correlations. Compound 1 showed strong antimicrobial activity against all Gram (+) species tested (MICs = 3.12–6.25 µg/mL). In addition, the synthesis and antibacterial activity of some compounds structurally related to compound 1 (including four new compounds) are reported. A SAR study for these compounds was performed based on the results obtained by using molecular calculations. View Full-Text
Keywords: Annona emarginata; (R)-2-(4-methylcyclohex-3-en-1-yl)propan-2-yl (E)-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-acrylate; antibacterial activity; Staphylococcus aureus; structure-activity relationships Annona emarginata; (R)-2-(4-methylcyclohex-3-en-1-yl)propan-2-yl (E)-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-acrylate; antibacterial activity; Staphylococcus aureus; structure-activity relationships

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Dolab, J.G.; Lima, B.; Spaczynska, E.; Kos, J.; Cano, N.H.; Feresin, G.; Tapia, A.; Garibotto, F.; Petenatti, E.; Olivella, M.; Musiol, R.; Jampilek, J.; Enriz, R.D. The Antimicrobial Activity of Annona emarginata (Schltdl.) H. Rainer and Most Active Isolated Compounds against Clinically Important Bacteria. Molecules 2018, 23, 1187.

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