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Molecules 2018, 23(5), 1171; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23051171

Comparison of the Conventional and Electroenhanced Direct-Immersion Solid-Phase Microextraction for Sampling of Nicotine in Biological Fluids of the Human Body

Department of Chemistry, Lorestan University, P.O. Box 465, Khorramabad 44316-68151, Iran
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Received: 23 March 2018 / Revised: 30 April 2018 / Accepted: 9 May 2018 / Published: 14 May 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Analytical Chemistry)
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Abstract

A stainless steel fiber was made porous and adhesive by platinization and then coated by nanostructured polypyrrole (PPy), using an appropriate electrophoretic deposition (EPD) method. The morphological surface structure and functional groups of the PPy-coated fiber were studied using SEM (Scanning electron microscope) instrument. The prepared fiber was used for comparison of direct immersion (DI) and electroenhanced direct immersion solid-phase microextraction (EE-DI-SPME) of nicotine in human plasma and urine samples followed by gas chromatography flame ionization detector (GC-FID) determination. The effects of the influential experimental parameters on the efficiency of the DI-SPME and EE-DI-SPME methods, including the pH and ionic strength of the sample solution, applied Direct current (DC) voltage, extraction temperature and time and stirring rate, were optimized. Under the optimal conditions, the calibration curves for the DI-SPME-GC-FID and EE-DI-SPME-GC-FID methods were linear over the ranges of 0.1–10.0 μg mL−1 and 0.001–10.0 μg mL−1, respectively. The relative standard deviations (RSDs, n = 6) were found to be 6.1% and 4.6% for the DI and EE strategies, respectively. The LODs (limit of detection) of the DI-SPME-GC-FID and EE-DI-SPME-GC-FID methods were found to be 10 and 0.3 ng mL−1, respectively. The relative recovery values (for the analysis of 1 µg mL−1 nicotine) were found to be 91–110% for EE-DI-SPME and 75–105% for DI-SPME. The enrichment factors for DI-SPME and EE-DI-SPME sampling were obtained as 38,734 and 50,597, respectively. The results indicated that EE-SPME was more efficient for quantitation of nicotine in biological fluids. The developed procedure was successfully carried out for the extraction and measurement of nicotine in real plasma and urine samples. View Full-Text
Keywords: direct-immersion SPME; electroenhanced SPME; nicotine; plasma; urine direct-immersion SPME; electroenhanced SPME; nicotine; plasma; urine
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Abdolhosseini, S.; Ghiasvand, A.R.; Heidari, N. Comparison of the Conventional and Electroenhanced Direct-Immersion Solid-Phase Microextraction for Sampling of Nicotine in Biological Fluids of the Human Body. Molecules 2018, 23, 1171.

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