Next Article in Journal
HIV Resistance Prediction to Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors: Focus on Open Data
Next Article in Special Issue
Anticancer Profiling for Coumarins and Related O-Naphthoquinones from Mansonia gagei against Solid Tumor Cells In Vitro
Previous Article in Journal
Computational Prediction and Analysis of Associations between Small Molecules and Binding-Associated S-Nitrosylation Sites
Previous Article in Special Issue
Biflavonoids Isolated from Selaginella tamariscina and Their Anti-Inflammatory Activities via ERK 1/2 Signaling
Article Menu
Issue 4 (April) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Molecules 2018, 23(4), 955;

Formation of Sulforaphane and Iberin Products from Thai Cabbage Fermented by Myrosinase-Positive Bacteria

Natural Antioxidant Innovation Research Unit, Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Technology, Mahasarakham University, Khamriang, Kantarawichai, Mahasarakham 44150, Thailand
Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Bath, Claverton Down, Bath BA2 7AY, UK
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 6 March 2018 / Revised: 11 April 2018 / Accepted: 18 April 2018 / Published: 19 April 2018
(This article belongs to the Collection Bioactive Compounds)
Full-Text   |   PDF [3230 KB, uploaded 3 May 2018]   |  


Myrosinase-positive bacteria from local fermented foods and beverages in Thailand with the capacity to metabolize glucosinolate and produce isothiocyanates (ITCs) were isolated and used as selected strains for Thai cabbage fermentation. Enterobacter xiangfangensis 4A-2A3.1 (EX) from fermented fish and Enterococcus casseliflavus SB2X2 (EC) from fermented cabbage were the two highest ITC producers among seventeen strains identified by 16S rRNA technique. EC and EX were used to ferment Thai cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata) containing glucoiberin, glucoraphanin and 4-hydroxyglucobrassicin at 430.5, 615.1 and 108.5 µmol/100 g DW, respectively for 3 days at 25 °C. Different amounts of iberin nitrile, iberin, sulforaphane and indole 3-acetonitrile were produced by spontaneous, EX- and EC-induced cabbage fermentations, and significantly higher ITCs were detected (p < 0.01) with increased antioxidant activities. Iberin and sulforaphane production in EX-induced treatment peaked on day 2 at 117.4 and 294.1 µmol/100 g DW, respectively, significantly higher than iberin at 51.7 µmol/100 g DW but not significantly higher than sulforaphane at 242.6 µmol/100 g DW in EC-induced treatment at day 2. Maximum health-promoting benefits from this functional food can be obtained from consumption of a liquid portion of the fermented cabbage with higher ITC level along with a solid portion. View Full-Text
Keywords: antioxidant; cabbage; Enterococcus; Enterobacter; isothiocyanate; myrosinase antioxidant; cabbage; Enterococcus; Enterobacter; isothiocyanate; myrosinase

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material


Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Luang-In, V.; Deeseenthum, S.; Udomwong, P.; Saengha, W.; Gregori, M. Formation of Sulforaphane and Iberin Products from Thai Cabbage Fermented by Myrosinase-Positive Bacteria. Molecules 2018, 23, 955.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Molecules EISSN 1420-3049 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top