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Molecules 2018, 23(4), 724; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23040724

Development of Phaleria macrocarpa (Scheff.) Boerl Fruits Using Response Surface Methodology Focused on Phenolics, Flavonoids and Antioxidant Properties

1
Lapsah, IPPH, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Putra Infoport, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
2
Department of Agriculture Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
3
Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
4
Department of Land Management, Faculty of Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 November 2017 / Revised: 11 February 2018 / Accepted: 13 February 2018 / Published: 22 March 2018
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Abstract

In this study, the optimal conditions for the extraction of antioxidants from the Buah Mahkota Dewa fruit (Phaleria macrocarpa) was determined by using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The optimisation was applied using a Central Composite Design (CCD) to investigate the effect of three independent variables, namely extraction temperature (°C), extraction time (minutes) and extraction solvent to-feed ratio (% v/v) on four responses: free radical scavenging activity (DPPH), ferric ion reducing power assay (FRAP), total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC). The optimal conditions for the antioxidants extraction were found to be 64 °C extraction temperature, 66 min extraction time and 75% v/v solvent to-feed ratio giving the highest percentage yields of DPPH, FRAP, TPC and TFC of 86.85%, 7.47%, 292.86 mg/g and 3.22 mg/g, respectively. Moreover, the data were subjected to Response Surface Methodology (RSM) and the results showed that the polynomial equations for all models were significant, did not show lack of fit, and presented adjusted determination coefficients (R2) above 99%, proving that the yield of phenolic, flavonoid and antioxidants activities obtained experimentally were close to the predicted values and the suitability of the model employed in RSM to optimise the extraction conditions. Hence, in this study, the fruit from P. macrocarpa could be considered to have strong antioxidant ability and can be used in various cosmeceutical or medicinal applications. View Full-Text
Keywords: Phaleria macrocarpa; extraction; free radical scavenging activity (DPPH); ferric ion reducing power assay (FRAP); total phenolic content (TPC); total flavonoid content (TFC); response surface methodology (RSM) Phaleria macrocarpa; extraction; free radical scavenging activity (DPPH); ferric ion reducing power assay (FRAP); total phenolic content (TPC); total flavonoid content (TFC); response surface methodology (RSM)
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Mohamed Mahzir, K.A.; Abd Gani, S.S.; Hasanah Zaidan, U.; Halmi, M.I.E. Development of Phaleria macrocarpa (Scheff.) Boerl Fruits Using Response Surface Methodology Focused on Phenolics, Flavonoids and Antioxidant Properties. Molecules 2018, 23, 724.

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