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Open AccessArticle

Complete Chloroplast Genomes of Papaver rhoeas and Papaver orientale: Molecular Structures, Comparative Analysis, and Phylogenetic Analysis

1
Key Lab of Chinese Medicine Resources Conservation, State Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine of the People’s Republic of China, Institute of Medicinal Plant Development, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100193, China
2
College of Pharmaceutical Science, Dali University, Dali 671000, China
3
Department of Pharmacy, Guangxi Traditional Chinese Medicine University, Nanning 530200, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Molecules 2018, 23(2), 437; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23020437
Received: 17 January 2018 / Revised: 11 February 2018 / Accepted: 14 February 2018 / Published: 16 February 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Diversity)
Papaver rhoeas L. and P. orientale L., which belong to the family Papaveraceae, are used as ornamental and medicinal plants. The chloroplast genome has been used for molecular markers, evolutionary biology, and barcoding identification. In this study, the complete chloroplast genome sequences of P. rhoeas and P. orientale are reported. Results show that the complete chloroplast genomes of P. rhoeas and P. orientale have typical quadripartite structures, which are comprised of circular 152,905 and 152,799-bp-long molecules, respectively. A total of 130 genes were identified in each genome, including 85 protein-coding genes, 37 tRNA genes, and 8 rRNA genes. Sequence divergence analysis of four species from Papaveraceae indicated that the most divergent regions are found in the non-coding spacers with minimal differences among three Papaver species. These differences include the ycf1 gene and intergenic regions, such as rpoB-trnC, trnD-trnT, petA-psbJ, psbE-petL, and ccsA-ndhD. These regions are hypervariable regions, which can be used as specific DNA barcodes. This finding suggested that the chloroplast genome could be used as a powerful tool to resolve the phylogenetic positions and relationships of Papaveraceae. These results offer valuable information for future research in the identification of Papaver species and will benefit further investigations of these species. View Full-Text
Keywords: Papaver rhoeas; Papaver orientale; chloroplast genome; molecular structure; comparative analysis; phylogenetic analysis Papaver rhoeas; Papaver orientale; chloroplast genome; molecular structure; comparative analysis; phylogenetic analysis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zhou, J.; Cui, Y.; Chen, X.; Li, Y.; Xu, Z.; Duan, B.; Li, Y.; Song, J.; Yao, H. Complete Chloroplast Genomes of Papaver rhoeas and Papaver orientale: Molecular Structures, Comparative Analysis, and Phylogenetic Analysis. Molecules 2018, 23, 437. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23020437

AMA Style

Zhou J, Cui Y, Chen X, Li Y, Xu Z, Duan B, Li Y, Song J, Yao H. Complete Chloroplast Genomes of Papaver rhoeas and Papaver orientale: Molecular Structures, Comparative Analysis, and Phylogenetic Analysis. Molecules. 2018; 23(2):437. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23020437

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zhou, Jianguo; Cui, Yingxian; Chen, Xinlian; Li, Ying; Xu, Zhichao; Duan, Baozhong; Li, Yonghua; Song, Jingyuan; Yao, Hui. 2018. "Complete Chloroplast Genomes of Papaver rhoeas and Papaver orientale: Molecular Structures, Comparative Analysis, and Phylogenetic Analysis" Molecules 23, no. 2: 437. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23020437

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