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Molecules 2018, 23(2), 389; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23020389

The Complete Chloroplast Genome of a Key Ancestor of Modern Roses, Rosa chinensis var. spontanea, and a Comparison with Congeneric Species

1
National Engineering Research Center for Ornamental Horticulture/Flower Research Institute, Yunnan Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Kunming 650205, China
2
School of Life Sciences, Yunnan Normal University, Kunming 650500, China
3
School of Biological Sciences and Technology, Liupanshui Normal University, Liupanshui 553004, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Received: 19 January 2018 / Revised: 6 February 2018 / Accepted: 7 February 2018 / Published: 12 February 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Diversity)
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Abstract

Rosa chinensis var. spontanea, an endemic and endangered plant of China, is one of the key ancestors of modern roses and a source for famous traditional Chinese medicines against female diseases, such as irregular menses and dysmenorrhea. In this study, the complete chloroplast (cp) genome of R. chinensis var. spontanea was sequenced, analyzed, and compared to congeneric species. The cp genome of R. chinensis var. spontanea is a typical quadripartite circular molecule of 156,590 bp in length, including one large single copy (LSC) region of 85,910 bp and one small single copy (SSC) region of 18,762 bp, separated by two inverted repeat (IR) regions of 25,959 bp. The GC content of the whole genome is 37.2%, while that of LSC, SSC, and IR is 42.8%, 35.2% and 31.2%, respectively. The genome encodes 129 genes, including 84 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 37 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, and eight ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes. Seventeen genes in the IR regions were found to be duplicated. Thirty-three forward and five inverted repeats were detected in the cp genome of R. chinensis var. spontanea. The genome is rich in SSRs. In total, 85 SSRs were detected. A genome comparison revealed that IR contraction might be the reason for the relatively smaller cp genome size of R. chinensis var. spontanea compared to other congeneric species. Sequence analysis revealed that the LSC and SSC regions were more divergent than the IR regions within the genus Rosa and that a higher divergence occurred in non-coding regions than in coding regions. A phylogenetic analysis showed that the sampled species of the genus Rosa formed a monophyletic clade and that R. chinensis var. spontanea shared a more recent ancestor with R. lichiangensis of the section Synstylae than with R. odorata var. gigantea of the section Chinenses. This information will be useful for the conservation genetics of R. chinensis var. spontanea and for the phylogenetic study of the genus Rosa, and it might also facilitate the genetics and breeding of modern roses. View Full-Text
Keywords: Rosa chinensis var. spontanea; chloroplast genome; repeats; SSRs; genome comparison; phylogeny Rosa chinensis var. spontanea; chloroplast genome; repeats; SSRs; genome comparison; phylogeny
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Jian, H.-Y.; Zhang, Y.-H.; Yan, H.-J.; Qiu, X.-Q.; Wang, Q.-G.; Li, S.-B.; Zhang, S.-D. The Complete Chloroplast Genome of a Key Ancestor of Modern Roses, Rosa chinensis var. spontanea, and a Comparison with Congeneric Species. Molecules 2018, 23, 389.

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