Next Article in Journal
Melatonin: A Molecule for Reducing Breast Cancer Risk
Previous Article in Journal
Mexican Propolis: A Source of Antioxidants and Anti-Inflammatory Compounds, and Isolation of a Novel Chalcone and ε-Caprolactone Derivative
Article Menu
Issue 2 (February) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Molecules 2018, 23(2), 335;

Review of Current Cell-Penetrating Antibody Developments for HIV-1 Therapy

Kulliyyah of Medicine and Health Sciences (KMHS), Kolej Universiti INSANIAH, 09300 Kuala Ketil, Kedah, Malaysia
Sunway Institute for Healthcare Development (SIHD), School of Healthcare and Medical Sciences (SHMS), Sunway University, Jalan Universiti, Bandar Sunway, 47500 Subang Jaya, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 December 2017 / Revised: 6 January 2018 / Accepted: 8 January 2018 / Published: 6 February 2018
Full-Text   |   PDF [1243 KB, uploaded 6 February 2018]   |  


The discovery of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in 1996 has significantly reduced the global mortality and morbidity caused by the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). However, the therapeutic strategy of HAART that targets multiple viral proteins may render off-target toxicity and more importantly results in drug-resistant escape mutants. These have been the main challenges for HAART and refinement of this therapeutic strategy is urgently needed. Antibody-mediated treatments are emerging therapeutic modalities for various diseases. Most therapeutic antibodies have been approved by Food and Drug Administration (FDA) mainly for targeting cancers. Previous studies have also demonstrated the promising effect of therapeutic antibodies against HIV-1, but there are several limitations in this therapy, particularly when the viral targets are intracellular proteins. The conventional antibodies do not cross the cell membrane, hence, the pathogenic intracellular proteins cannot be targeted with this classical therapeutic approach. Over the years, the advancement of antibody engineering has permitted the therapeutic antibodies to comprehensively target both extra- and intra-cellular proteins in various infections and diseases. This review aims to update on the current progress in the development of antibody-based treatment against intracellular targets in HIV-1 infection. We also attempt to highlight the challenges and limitations in the development of antibody-based therapeutic modalities against HIV-1. View Full-Text
Keywords: HIV-1; cell-penetrating; antibody; intracellular protein; therapy HIV-1; cell-penetrating; antibody; intracellular protein; therapy

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Che Nordin, M.A.; Teow, S.-Y. Review of Current Cell-Penetrating Antibody Developments for HIV-1 Therapy. Molecules 2018, 23, 335.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Molecules EISSN 1420-3049 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top