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Molecules 2018, 23(2), 245;

Impact & Blast Traumatic Brain Injury: Implications for Therapy

Department of Anesthesiology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555, USA
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 26 December 2017 / Revised: 22 January 2018 / Accepted: 24 January 2018 / Published: 26 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuroprotective Agents)
Full-Text   |   PDF [220 KB, uploaded 26 January 2018]


Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the most frequent causes of combat casualties in Operations Iraqi Freedom (OIF), Enduring Freedom (OEF), and New Dawn (OND). Although less common than combat-related blast exposure, there have been significant numbers of blast injuries in civilian populations in the United States. Current United States Department of Defense (DoD) ICD-9 derived diagnoses of TBI in the DoD Health Care System show that, for 2016, severe and moderate TBIs accounted for just 0.7% and 12.9%, respectively, of the total of 13,634 brain injuries, while mild TBIs (mTBIs) accounted for 86% of the total. Although there is a report that there are differences in the frequency of long-term complications in mTBI between blast and non-blast TBIs, clinical presentation is classified by severity score rather than mechanism because severity scoring is associated with prognosis in clinical practice. Blast TBI (bTBI) is unique in its pathology and mechanism, but there is no treatment specific for bTBIs—these patients are treated similarly to TBIs in general and therapy is tailored on an individual basis. Currently there is no neuroprotective drug recommended by the clinical guidelines based on evidence. View Full-Text
Keywords: traumatic brain injury; therapeutic strategy; brain trauma foundation guideline traumatic brain injury; therapeutic strategy; brain trauma foundation guideline
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Yamamoto, S.; DeWitt, D.S.; Prough, D.S. Impact & Blast Traumatic Brain Injury: Implications for Therapy. Molecules 2018, 23, 245.

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