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Effects of Toona sinensis Leaf Extract and Its Chemical Constituents on Xanthine Oxidase Activity and Serum Uric Acid Levels in Potassium Oxonate-Induced Hyperuricemic Rats

1
Herbal Medicine Research Division, Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine (KIOM), Daejeon 34054, Korea
2
Natural Medicine Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology (KRIBB), Cheongju, Chungbuk 28116, Korea
3
Institute of Traditional Medicine and Bioscience, Daejeon University, Daejeon 34520, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Molecules 2018, 23(12), 3254; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23123254
Received: 15 November 2018 / Revised: 6 December 2018 / Accepted: 8 December 2018 / Published: 9 December 2018
Toona sinensis leaf is used as a seasonal vegetable in Korea. A 70% ethanol extract of these leaves exhibited potent xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibition, with a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 78.4 µM. To investigate the compounds responsible for this effect, bioassay-guided purification led to the isolation of five constituents, identified as quercetin-3-O-rutinoside, quercetin-3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside, 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl-β-d-glucopyranose (compound 3), quercetin-3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranoside, and kaempferol-3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranoside. Compound 3 showed the most potent inhibition of XO, with an IC50 of 2.8 µM. This was similar to that of allopurinol (IC50 = 2.3 µM), which is used clinically to treat hyperuricemia. Kinetic analyses found that compound 3 was a reversible noncompetitive XO inhibitor. In vivo, the T. sinensis leaf extract (300 mg/kg), or compound 3 (40 mg/kg), significantly decreased serum uric acid levels in rats with potassium oxonate-induced hyperuricemia. Furthermore, ultraperformance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis identified a high level of compound 3 in the leaf extract. These findings suggest that T. sinensis leaves could be developed to produce nutraceutical preparations. View Full-Text
Keywords: Toona sinensis; xanthine oxidase; uric acid; hyperuricemia; ultraperformance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry Toona sinensis; xanthine oxidase; uric acid; hyperuricemia; ultraperformance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry
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Yuk, H.J.; Lee, Y.-S.; Ryu, H.W.; Kim, S.-H.; Kim, D.-S. Effects of Toona sinensis Leaf Extract and Its Chemical Constituents on Xanthine Oxidase Activity and Serum Uric Acid Levels in Potassium Oxonate-Induced Hyperuricemic Rats. Molecules 2018, 23, 3254.

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