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Molecules 2018, 23(11), 2813; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23112813

Comparison of Single and Combined Use of Catechin, Protocatechuic, and Vanillic Acids as Antioxidant and Antibacterial Agents against Uropathogenic Escherichia Coli at Planktonic and Biofilm Levels

1
Centro de Investigacion en Alimentacion y Desarrollo, AC, Carretera a la Victoria km. 0.6, Hermosillo 83000, Mexico
2
Universidad de Sonora, Blvd. Luis Encinas y Rosales S/N, Col. Centro, Hermosillo, Sonora 83000, Mexico
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Natália Martins and Gertjan van Dijk
Received: 27 September 2018 / Revised: 22 October 2018 / Accepted: 26 October 2018 / Published: 30 October 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Plant Compounds for Sustainable Health)
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Abstract

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of combining catechin, protocatechuic, and vanillic acids against planktonic growing, adhesion, and biofilm eradication of uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC), as well as antioxidant agents. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of protocatechuic, vanillic acids and catechin against the growth of planktonic bacteria were 12.98, 11.80, and 13.78 mM, respectively. Mixing 1.62 mM protocatechuic acid + 0.74 mM vanillic acid + 0.05 mM catechin resulted in a synergistic effect acting as an MIC. Similarly, the minimum concentrations of phenolic compounds to prevent UPEC adhesion and biofilm formation (MBIC) were 11.03 and 7.13 mM of protocatechuic and vanillic acids, respectively, whereas no MBIC of catechin was found. However, combinations of 1.62 mM protocatechuic acid + 0.74 mM vanillic acid + 0.05 mM catechin showed a synergistic effect acting as MBIC. On the other hand, the minimum concentrations to eradicate biofilms (MBEC) were 25.95 and 23.78 mM, respectively. The combination of 3.20 mM protocatechuic acid, 2.97 mM vanillic acid, and 1.72 mM catechin eradicated pre-formed biofilms. The antioxidant capacity of the combination of phenolics was higher than the expected theoretical values, indicating synergism by the DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP assays. Effective concentrations of catechin, protocatechuic, and vanillic acids were reduced from 8 to 1378 times when combined. In contrast, the antibiotic nitrofurantoin was not effective in eradicating biofilms from silicone surfaces. In conclusion, the mixture of phenolic compounds was more effective in preventing cell adhesion and eradicating pre-formed biofilms of uropathogenic E. coli than single compounds and nitrofurantoin, and showed antioxidant synergy. View Full-Text
Keywords: synergism; phenolic compounds; antimicrobials; anti-biofilm compounds; antibiotic resistance; bacterial adhesion; urinary catheter infection synergism; phenolic compounds; antimicrobials; anti-biofilm compounds; antibiotic resistance; bacterial adhesion; urinary catheter infection
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Bernal-Mercado, A.T.; Vazquez-Armenta, F.J.; Tapia-Rodriguez, M.R.; Islas-Osuna, M.A.; Mata-Haro, V.; Gonzalez-Aguilar, G.A.; Lopez-Zavala, A.A.; Ayala-Zavala, J.F. Comparison of Single and Combined Use of Catechin, Protocatechuic, and Vanillic Acids as Antioxidant and Antibacterial Agents against Uropathogenic Escherichia Coli at Planktonic and Biofilm Levels. Molecules 2018, 23, 2813.

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