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Preparation of Starch-Hard Carbon Spherules from Ginkgo Seeds and Their Phenol-Adsorption Characteristics

1,2, 1,2,3,*, 1,2, 1,2,3, 1,2 and 1,2
Institute of Chemical Industry of Forest Products, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Nanjing 210042, China
Key and Open Laboratory on Forest Chemical Engineering, State Forestry Administration of the People’s Republic of China, Nanjing 210042, China
Institute of New Technology of Forestry, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Beijing 10091, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Molecules 2018, 23(1), 96;
Received: 23 November 2017 / Revised: 28 December 2017 / Accepted: 30 December 2017 / Published: 2 January 2018
PDF [7462 KB, uploaded 23 January 2018]


Carbon spherules from ginkgo seed starch were prepared through stabilization and carbonization processes. The ginkgo seed starch was first stabilized at 195 °C for 18 h, then carbonized at 500 °C for 2 h under an N2 atmosphere. The characterization results confirmed that carbon spherules were in the size range of 10–20 μm. Experimental data were also evaluated to find out the kinetic characteristics of phenols on the carbon spherules during the adsorption process. Adsorption processes for phenol, p-nitrophenol and p-chlorophenol were found to follow the pseudo-first order kinetic model with R2 values of 0.995, 0.997 and 0.998, while the rate constants k1 = 0.014, 0.009 and 0.011 min−1 showed that the adsorption is mainly controlled by adsorbate diffusion. The equilibrium data were analyzed with the Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin–Pyzhev models and the best fit was observed with the Freundlich isotherm, suggesting the physical adsorption of phenols. From the thermodynamic functions, ∆G, ∆H, and ∆S were calculated, which showed that adsorption is more favorable at low temperature and is an exothermic process, and the adsorption of p-nitrophenol and p-chlorophenol were more advantageous than that of phenol. View Full-Text
Keywords: ginkgo seeds; starch; spherule; adsorption; phenols ginkgo seeds; starch; spherule; adsorption; phenols

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Chen, H.; Wang, C.; Ye, J.; Zhou, H.; Tao, R.; Li, W. Preparation of Starch-Hard Carbon Spherules from Ginkgo Seeds and Their Phenol-Adsorption Characteristics. Molecules 2018, 23, 96.

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