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γ-Tocotrienol Inhibits Proliferation and Induces Apoptosis via the Mitochondrial Pathway in Human Cervical Cancer HeLa Cells

Department of Food Science and Engineering, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Molecules 2017, 22(8), 1299;
Received: 10 July 2017 / Revised: 28 July 2017 / Accepted: 2 August 2017 / Published: 4 August 2017
(This article belongs to the Collection Natural Products: Anticancer Potential and Beyond)
γ-Tocotrienol, a kind of isoprenoid phytochemical, has antitumor activity. However, there is limited evidence that it has an effect on cervical cancer. In this study, the capacity to inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis in human cervical cancer HeLa cells and the mechanism underlying these effects were examined. The results indicated that a γ-tocotrienol concentration over 30 μM inhibited the growth of HeLa cells with a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 46.90 ± 3.50 μM at 24 h, and significantly down-regulated the expression of proliferative cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and Ki-67. DNA flow cytometric analysis indicated that γ-tocotrienol arrested the cell cycle at G0/G1 phase and reduced the S phase in HeLa cells. γ-tocotrienol induced apoptosis of HeLa cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. γ-tocotrienol-induced apoptosis in HeLa cells was accompanied by down-regulation of Bcl-2, up-regulation of Bax, release of cytochrome from mitochondria, activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3, and subsequent poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage. These results suggested that γ-tocotrienol could significantly inhibit cell proliferation through G0/G1 cell cycle arrest, and induce apoptosis via the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in human cervical cancer HeLa cells. Thus, our findings revealed that γ-tocotrienol may be considered as a potential agent for cervical cancer therapy. View Full-Text
Keywords: γ-tocotrienol; cervical cancer; cell proliferation; apoptosis γ-tocotrienol; cervical cancer; cell proliferation; apoptosis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Xu, W.; Mi, Y.; He, P.; He, S.; Niu, L. γ-Tocotrienol Inhibits Proliferation and Induces Apoptosis via the Mitochondrial Pathway in Human Cervical Cancer HeLa Cells. Molecules 2017, 22, 1299.

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