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Molecules 2017, 22(6), 954;

Rapid Complexation of Aptamers by Their Specific Antidotes

Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, University Hospital Tuebingen, 72076 Tuebingen, Germany
Laboratory of Hematology and Oncology, Graduate School of Health Sciences, Niigata University, Niigata 951-8518, Japan
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Didier Astruc
Received: 4 May 2017 / Revised: 4 June 2017 / Accepted: 5 June 2017 / Published: 8 June 2017
(This article belongs to the Collection Nanomedicine)
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Nucleic acid ligands, aptamers, harbor the unique characteristics of small molecules and antibodies. The specificity and high affinity of aptamers enable their binding to different targets, such as small molecules, proteins, or cells. Chemical modifications of aptamers allow increased bioavailability. A further great benefit of aptamers is the antidote (AD)-mediated controllability of their effect. In this study, the AD-mediated complexation and neutralization of the thrombin binding aptamer NU172 and Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) binding R10-60 aptamer were determined. Thereby, the required time for the generation of aptamer/AD-complexes was analyzed at 37 °C in human serum using gel electrophoresis. Afterwards, the blocking of aptamers’ effects was analyzed by determining the activated clotting time (ACT) in the case of the NU172 aptamer, or the expression of immune activation related genes IFN-1β, IL-6, CXCL-10, and IL-1β in the case of the R10-60 aptamer. Gel electrophoresis analyses demonstrated the rapid complexation of the NU172 and R10-60 aptamers by complementary AD binding after just 2 min of incubation in human serum. A rapid neutralization of anticoagulant activity of NU172 was also demonstrated in fresh human whole blood 5 min after addition of AD. Furthermore, the TLR9-mediated activation of PMDC05 cells was interrupted after the addition of the R10-60 AD. Using these two different aptamers, the rapid antagonizability of the aptamers was demonstrated in different environments; whole blood containing numerous proteins, cells, and different small molecules, serum, or cell culture media. Thus, nucleic acid ADs are promising molecules, which offer several possibilities for different in vivo applications, such as antagonizing aptamer-based drugs, immobilization, or delivery of oligonucleotides to defined locations. View Full-Text
Keywords: aptamers; antidote; therapeutics; complexation aptamers; antidote; therapeutics; complexation

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Stoll, H.; Steinle, H.; Wilhelm, N.; Hann, L.; Kunnakattu, S.-J.; Narita, M.; Schlensak, C.; Wendel, H.P.; Avci-Adali, M. Rapid Complexation of Aptamers by Their Specific Antidotes. Molecules 2017, 22, 954.

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