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Molecules 2017, 22(10), 1560;

Novel Anti-Tuberculosis Nanodelivery Formulation of Ethambutol with Graphene Oxide

Mycobacteria Research Laboratory, Department of Biological Sciences, Institute of Structural and Molecular Biology (ISMB), Birkbeck, University of London, Malet Street, London WC1E 7HX, UK
Material Synthesis and Characterization Laboratory, Institute of Advanced Technology (ITMA), Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), Serdang 43400, Selangor, Malaysia
Laboratory for Vaccine and Immunotherapeutics, Institute of Biosciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), Serdang 43400, Selangor, Malaysia
Department of Neurology (Ward No. 18) Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Center/Jinnah Sindh Medical, University Karachi, Karachi 75510, Pakistan
Department of Human Anatomy Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University Putra Malaysia (UPM), Serdang 43400, Selangor, Malaysia
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 26 August 2017 / Revised: 8 September 2017 / Accepted: 13 September 2017 / Published: 12 October 2017
(This article belongs to the Collection Nanomedicine)
Full-Text   |   PDF [1327 KB, uploaded 12 October 2017]   |  


Tuberculosis (TB) is a bacterial disease responsible for millions of infections and preventable deaths each year. Its treatment is complicated by patients’ noncompliance due to dosing frequency, lengthy treatment, and adverse side effects associated with current chemotherapy. However, no modifications to the half-a-century old standard chemotherapy have been made based on a nanoformulation strategy to improve pharmacokinetic efficacy. In this study, we have designed a new nanodelivery formulation, using graphene oxide as the nanocarrier, loaded with the anti-TB antibiotic, ethambutol. The designed formulation was characterized using a number of molecular analytical techniques. It was found that sustained release of the drug resulted in better bioavailability. In addition, the designed formulation demonstrated high biocompatibility with mouse fibroblast cells. The anti-TB activity of the nanodelivery formulation was determined using whole-cell resazurin microtiter plate assay, modified-spot culture growth inhibition assay, and biofilm inhibition assay. The nanodelivery formulation showed good anti-mycobacterial activity. The anti-mycobacterial activity of Ethambutol was unaffected by the drug loading and release process. The results of this study demonstrated the potential of this new nanodelivery formulation strategy to be considered for modifying existing chemotherapy to yield more efficacious antibiotic treatment against TB. View Full-Text
Keywords: graphene oxide; nanocarrier; ethambutol; tuberculosis; nanodelivery formulation graphene oxide; nanocarrier; ethambutol; tuberculosis; nanodelivery formulation

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Saifullah, B.; Chrzastek, A.; Maitra, A.; Naeemullah, B.; Fakurazi, S.; Bhakta, S.; Hussein, M.Z. Novel Anti-Tuberculosis Nanodelivery Formulation of Ethambutol with Graphene Oxide. Molecules 2017, 22, 1560.

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