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Open AccessArticle

Inferring the Genetic Determinants of Fruit Colors in Tomato by Carotenoid Profiling

1
Department of Horticultural Science, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 41566, Korea
2
Department of Marine Food Science and Technology, Gangneung-Wonju National University, Gangneung, Gangwon 25457, Korea
3
Department of Horticultural Biotechnology, College of Life Science, Kyung Hee University, Yongin, Gyeonggi 17104, Korea
4
Department of Horticulture and Breeding, Andong National University, Andong, Gyeongbuk 36729, Korea
5
Breeding Institute, Nongwoo Bio Co., Ltd., Yeoju, Gyeonggi 12655, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Derek J. McPhee
Molecules 2017, 22(5), 764; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22050764
Received: 12 April 2017 / Revised: 1 May 2017 / Accepted: 2 May 2017 / Published: 8 May 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Diversity)
Carotenoids are essential for plant and animal nutrition, and are important factors in the variation of pigmentation in fruits, leaves, and flowers. Tomato is a model crop for studying the biology and biotechnology of fleshy fruits, particularly for understanding carotenoid biosynthesis. In commercial tomato cultivars and germplasms, visual phenotyping of the colors of ripe fruits can be done easily. However, subsequent analysis of metabolic profiling is necessary for hypothesizing genetic factors prior to performing time-consuming genetic analysis. We used high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), employing a C30 reverse-phase column, to efficiently resolve nine carotenoids and isomers of several carotenoids in yellow, orange, and red colored ripe tomatoes. High content of lycopene was detected in red tomatoes. The orange tomatoes contained three dominant carotenoids, namely δ-carotene, β-carotene, and prolycopene. The yellow tomatoes showed low levels of carotenoids compared to red or orange tomatoes. Based on the HPLC profiles, genes responsible for overproducing δ-carotene and prolycopene were described as lycopene ε-cyclase and carotenoid isomerase, respectively. Subsequent genetic analysis using DNA markers for segregating population and germplasms were conducted to confirm the hypothesis. This study establishes the usefulness of metabolic profiling for inferring the genetic determinants of fruit color. View Full-Text
Keywords: tomato; carotenoid; fruit color; HPLC; DNA marker; δ-carotene; prolycopene tomato; carotenoid; fruit color; HPLC; DNA marker; δ-carotene; prolycopene
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MDPI and ACS Style

Yoo, H.J.; Park, W.J.; Lee, G.-M.; Oh, C.-S.; Yeam, I.; Won, D.-C.; Kim, C.K.; Lee, J.M. Inferring the Genetic Determinants of Fruit Colors in Tomato by Carotenoid Profiling. Molecules 2017, 22, 764. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22050764

AMA Style

Yoo HJ, Park WJ, Lee G-M, Oh C-S, Yeam I, Won D-C, Kim CK, Lee JM. Inferring the Genetic Determinants of Fruit Colors in Tomato by Carotenoid Profiling. Molecules. 2017; 22(5):764. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22050764

Chicago/Turabian Style

Yoo, Hee J.; Park, Woo J.; Lee, Gyu-Myung; Oh, Chang-Sik; Yeam, Inhwa; Won, Dong-Chan; Kim, Chang K.; Lee, Je M. 2017. "Inferring the Genetic Determinants of Fruit Colors in Tomato by Carotenoid Profiling" Molecules 22, no. 5: 764. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22050764

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