Next Article in Journal
Synthesis and Evaluation of Essential Oil-Derived β-Methoxyacrylate Derivatives as High Potential Fungicides
Previous Article in Journal
Two New Metabolites from the Endophytic Fungus Alternaria sp. A744 Derived from Morinda officinalis
Article Menu
Issue 5 (May) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Molecules 2017, 22(5), 764;

Inferring the Genetic Determinants of Fruit Colors in Tomato by Carotenoid Profiling

Department of Horticultural Science, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 41566, Korea
Department of Marine Food Science and Technology, Gangneung-Wonju National University, Gangneung, Gangwon 25457, Korea
Department of Horticultural Biotechnology, College of Life Science, Kyung Hee University, Yongin, Gyeonggi 17104, Korea
Department of Horticulture and Breeding, Andong National University, Andong, Gyeongbuk 36729, Korea
Breeding Institute, Nongwoo Bio Co., Ltd., Yeoju, Gyeonggi 12655, Korea
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Derek J. McPhee
Received: 12 April 2017 / Revised: 1 May 2017 / Accepted: 2 May 2017 / Published: 8 May 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Diversity)
Full-Text   |   PDF [7823 KB, uploaded 8 May 2017]   |  


Carotenoids are essential for plant and animal nutrition, and are important factors in the variation of pigmentation in fruits, leaves, and flowers. Tomato is a model crop for studying the biology and biotechnology of fleshy fruits, particularly for understanding carotenoid biosynthesis. In commercial tomato cultivars and germplasms, visual phenotyping of the colors of ripe fruits can be done easily. However, subsequent analysis of metabolic profiling is necessary for hypothesizing genetic factors prior to performing time-consuming genetic analysis. We used high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), employing a C30 reverse-phase column, to efficiently resolve nine carotenoids and isomers of several carotenoids in yellow, orange, and red colored ripe tomatoes. High content of lycopene was detected in red tomatoes. The orange tomatoes contained three dominant carotenoids, namely δ-carotene, β-carotene, and prolycopene. The yellow tomatoes showed low levels of carotenoids compared to red or orange tomatoes. Based on the HPLC profiles, genes responsible for overproducing δ-carotene and prolycopene were described as lycopene ε-cyclase and carotenoid isomerase, respectively. Subsequent genetic analysis using DNA markers for segregating population and germplasms were conducted to confirm the hypothesis. This study establishes the usefulness of metabolic profiling for inferring the genetic determinants of fruit color. View Full-Text
Keywords: tomato; carotenoid; fruit color; HPLC; DNA marker; δ-carotene; prolycopene tomato; carotenoid; fruit color; HPLC; DNA marker; δ-carotene; prolycopene

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Yoo, H.J.; Park, W.J.; Lee, G.-M.; Oh, C.-S.; Yeam, I.; Won, D.-C.; Kim, C.K.; Lee, J.M. Inferring the Genetic Determinants of Fruit Colors in Tomato by Carotenoid Profiling. Molecules 2017, 22, 764.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Molecules EISSN 1420-3049 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top