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Molecules 2017, 22(5), 761;

Phytochemical Profiles and Antimicrobial Activities of Allium cepa Red cv. and A. sativum Subjected to Different Drying Methods: A Comparative MS-Based Metabolomics

Pharmacognosy department, College of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Kasr el Aini St., P.B. 11562 Cairo, Egypt
Department of Pharmaceutical Biology, Faculty of Pharmacy & Biotechnology, The German University in Cairo, P.B. 11835 Cairo, Egypt
Plant production Department, Desert Research Center, P.B. 11714 Cairo, Egypt
Division of Pharmacognosy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Uppsala University, Box 574, SE-75 123 Uppsala, Sweden
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, El-Menoufia University, 32512 Shebin El-Kom, Egypt
Leibniz Institute of Plant Biochemistry, Dept. Bioorganic Chemistry, Weinberg 3, D-06120 Halle (Saale), Germany
Pharmacognosy Department, College of Pharmacy, Modern Science and Arts University, P.B. 12566, Cairo, Egypt
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Martin C.H. Grühlke, Alan J. Slusarenko and Derek J. McPhee
Received: 28 February 2017 / Revised: 17 April 2017 / Accepted: 5 May 2017 / Published: 8 May 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Chemistry of Alliums)
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Plants of the Allium genus produce sulphur compounds that give them a characteristic (alliaceous) flavour and mediate for their medicinal use. In this study, the chemical composition and antimicrobial properties of Allium cepa red cv. and A. sativum in the context of three different drying processes were assessed using metabolomics. Bulbs were dried using either microwave, air drying, or freeze drying and further subjected to chemical analysis of their composition of volatile and non-volatile metabolites. Volatiles were collected using solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) coupled to gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC/MS) with 42 identified volatiles including 30 sulphur compounds, four nitriles, three aromatics, and three esters. Profiling of the polar non-volatile metabolites via ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution MS (UPLC/MS) annotated 51 metabolites including dipeptides, flavonoids, phenolic acids, and fatty acids. Major peaks in GC/MS or UPLC/MS contributing to the discrimination between A. sativum and A. cepa red cv. were assigned to sulphur compounds and flavonoids. Whereas sulphur conjugates amounted to the major forms in A. sativum, flavonoids predominated in the chemical composition of A. cepa red cv. With regard to drying impact on Allium metabolites, notable and clear separations among specimens were revealed using principal component analysis (PCA). The PCA scores plot of the UPLC/MS dataset showed closer metabolite composition of microwave dried specimens to freeze dried ones, and distant from air dried bulbs, observed in both A. cepa and A. sativum. Compared to GC/MS, the UPLC/MS derived PCA model was more consistent and better in assessing the impact of drying on Allium metabolism. A phthalate derivative was found exclusively in a commercial garlic preparation via GC/MS, of yet unknown origin. The freeze dried samples of both Allium species exhibited stronger antimicrobial activities compared to dried specimens with A. sativum being in general more active than A. cepa red cv. View Full-Text
Keywords: garlic; onion; metabolomics; drying; organosulphur; flavonoids; anti-microbial garlic; onion; metabolomics; drying; organosulphur; flavonoids; anti-microbial

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Farag, M.A.; Ali, S.E.; Hodaya, R.H.; El-Seedi, H.R.; Sultani, H.N.; Laub, A.; Eissa, T.F.; Abou-Zaid, F.O.F.; Wessjohann, L.A. Phytochemical Profiles and Antimicrobial Activities of Allium cepa Red cv. and A. sativum Subjected to Different Drying Methods: A Comparative MS-Based Metabolomics. Molecules 2017, 22, 761.

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