Next Article in Journal
Thermal and Antioxidant Properties of Polysaccharides Sequentially Extracted from Mulberry Leaves (Morus alba L.)
Next Article in Special Issue
Towards Comprehension of the ABCB1/P-Glycoprotein Role in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia
Previous Article in Journal
Zinc Ion Removal on Hybrid Pectin-Based Beads Containing Modified Poly(Methyl Methacrylate) Waste
Previous Article in Special Issue
A Novel Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Switch Promotes Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor Drug Resistance
Article Menu
Issue 12 (December) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Molecules 2017, 22(12), 2277;

PP2A as the Main Node of Therapeutic Strategies and Resistance Reversal in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer

Department of Pathophysiology, Dalian Medical University, Dalian 116044, China
Kamp Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd., Changsha 410008, China
College of Pharmacy, Dalian Medical University, Dalian 116044, China
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 November 2017 / Revised: 7 December 2017 / Accepted: 19 December 2017 / Published: 20 December 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Counteracting Drug Resistant Mechanisms in Cancer)
Full-Text   |   PDF [1110 KB, uploaded 20 December 2017]   |  


Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC), is defined as a type of tumor lacking the expression of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). The ER, PR and HER2 are usually the molecular therapeutic targets for breast cancers, but they are ineffective for TNBC because of their negative expressions, so chemotherapy is currently the main treatment strategy in TNBC. However, drug resistance remains a major impediment to TNBC chemotherapeutic treatment. Recently, the protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) has been found to regulate the phosphorylation of some substrates involved in the relevant target of TNBC, such as cell cycle control, DNA damage responses, epidermal growth factor receptor, immune modulation and cell death resistance, which may be the effective therapeutic strategies or influence drug sensitivity to TNBCs. Furthermore, PP2A has also been found that could induce ER re-expression in ER-negative breast cancer cells, and which suggests PP2A could promote the sensitivity of tamoxifen to TNBCs as a resistance reversal agent. In this review, we will summarize the potential therapeutic value of PP2A as the main node in developing targeting agents, disrupting resistance or restoring drug sensitivity in TNBC. View Full-Text
Keywords: breast cancer; TNBC; PP2A; resistance reversal; molecular targets breast cancer; TNBC; PP2A; resistance reversal; molecular targets

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Zhao, H.; Li, D.; Zhang, B.; Qi, Y.; Diao, Y.; Zhen, Y.; Shu, X. PP2A as the Main Node of Therapeutic Strategies and Resistance Reversal in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer. Molecules 2017, 22, 2277.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Molecules EISSN 1420-3049 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top