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Molecules 2017, 22(12), 2225;

Metalaxyl Degradation by Mucorales Strains Gongronella sp. and Rhizopus oryzae

HERCULES Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, School of Science and Technology, Universidade de Évora, 7000-809 Évora, Portugal
Department of Chemical Sciences and Natural Resources, CIBAMA, BIOREN, University of La Frontera, Temuco 4811-230, Chile
INIAV-National Institute for Agrarian and Veterinarian Research, Quinta do Marquês, 2780-157 Oeiras, Portugal
Department of Chemistry, Universidade de Évora, 7000-671 Évora, Portugal
CEB-Biological Engineering Centre, Micoteca da Universidade do Minho, University of Minho, Campus of Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga, Portugal
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 17 November 2017 / Revised: 11 December 2017 / Accepted: 12 December 2017 / Published: 14 December 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Chemical Biology)
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In this study, the degradation of metalaxyl was investigated in the presence of two Mucorales strains, previously isolated from soil subjected to repeated treatments with this fungicide and selected after enrichment technique. Fungal strains were characterised by a polyphasic approach using phylogenetic analysis of the Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) gene region, phenotypic characterisation by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) spectral analysis, and growth kinetics experiments. The strains were identified as Gongronella sp. and Rhizopus oryzae. The fungal growth kinetics in liquid cultures containing metalaxyl fits with Haldane model. Under laboratory conditions, the ability of Gongronella sp. and R. oryzae cultures to degrade metalaxyl was evaluated in liquid cultures and soil experiments. Both species were able to: (a) use metalaxyl as the main carbon and energy source; and (b) degrade metalaxyl in polluted soils, with rates around 1.0 mg kg1 d1. This suggests these strains could degrade metalaxyl in soils contaminated with this fungicide. View Full-Text
Keywords: acylanilide fungicide; bioremediation; contaminated soils; fungi; ITS phylogeny; MALDI-TOF MS acylanilide fungicide; bioremediation; contaminated soils; fungi; ITS phylogeny; MALDI-TOF MS

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Martins, M.R.; Santos, C.; Pereira, P.; Cruz-Morais, J.; Lima, N. Metalaxyl Degradation by Mucorales Strains Gongronella sp. and Rhizopus oryzae. Molecules 2017, 22, 2225.

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