Next Article in Journal
Development of Houttuynia cordata Extract-Loaded Solid Lipid Nanoparticles for Oral Delivery: High Drug Loading Efficiency and Controlled Release
Next Article in Special Issue
Peptides as Potential Therapeutics for Alzheimer’s Disease
Previous Article in Journal
Efficient Enzymatic Routes for the Synthesis of New Eight-membered Cyclic β-Amino Acid and β-Lactam Enantiomers
Previous Article in Special Issue
Conserved Binding Regions Provide the Clue for Peptide-Based Vaccine Development: A Chemical Perspective
Article Menu
Issue 12 (December) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Molecules 2017, 22(12), 2071;

The Potential of Frog Skin-Derived Peptides for Development into Therapeutically-Valuable Immunomodulatory Agents

Center for Molecular Medicine and Stem Cell Research, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Kragujevac, 34000 Kragujevac, Serbia
SAAD Centre for Pharmacy and Diabetes, School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Ulster, Cromore Road, Coleraine, Northern Ireland BT52 1SA, UK
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 6 November 2017 / Revised: 20 November 2017 / Accepted: 23 November 2017 / Published: 13 December 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Peptide Therapeutics)
Full-Text   |   PDF [221 KB, uploaded 13 December 2017]


The aim of this article is to review the immunoregulatory actions of frog skin-derived peptides in order to assess their potential as candidates for immunomodulatory or anti-inflammatory therapy. Frog skin peptides with demonstrable immunomodulatory properties have been isolated from skin secretions of a range of species belonging to the families Alytidae, Ascaphidae, Discoglossidae, Leptodactylidae, Pipidae and Ranidae. Their effects upon production of inflammatory and immunoregulatory cytokines by target cells have been evaluated ex vivo and effects upon cytokine expression and immune cell activity have been studied in vivo by flow cytometry after injection into mice. The naturally-occurring peptides and/or their synthetic analogues show complex and variable actions on the production of proinflammatory (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-12, IL-23, IL-8, IFN-γ and IL-17), pleiotropic (IL-4 and IL-6) and immunosuppressive (IL-10 and TGF-β) cytokines by peripheral and spleen cells, peritoneal cells and/or isolated macrophages. The effects of frenatin 2.1S include enhancement of the activation state and homing capacity of Th1-type lymphocytes and NK cells in the mouse peritoneal cavity, as well as the promotion of their tumoricidal capacities. Overall, the diverse effects of frog skin-derived peptides on the immune system indicate their potential for development into therapeutic agents. View Full-Text
Keywords: frog skin peptides; host defence peptides; immunomodulatory; cytokine; antimicrobial frog skin peptides; host defence peptides; immunomodulatory; cytokine; antimicrobial
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Pantic, J.M.; Jovanovic, I.P.; Radosavljevic, G.D.; Arsenijevic, N.N.; Conlon, J.M.; Lukic, M.L. The Potential of Frog Skin-Derived Peptides for Development into Therapeutically-Valuable Immunomodulatory Agents. Molecules 2017, 22, 2071.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Molecules EISSN 1420-3049 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top