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Structural Diversity and Biological Activities of the Cyclodipeptides from Fungi

Department of Plant Pathology, College of Plant Protection, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Molecules 2017, 22(12), 2026; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22122026
Received: 4 October 2017 / Revised: 22 November 2017 / Accepted: 15 November 2017 / Published: 23 November 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
Cyclodipeptides, called 2,5-diketopiperazines (2,5-DKPs), are obtained by the condensation of two amino acids. Fungi have been considered to be a rich source of novel and bioactive cyclodipeptides. This review highlights the occurrence, structures and biological activities of the fungal cyclodipeptides with the literature covered up to July 2017. A total of 635 fungal cyclodipeptides belonging to the groups of tryptophan-proline, tryptophan-tryptophan, tryptophan–Xaa, proline–Xaa, non-tryptophan–non-proline, and thio-analogs have been discussed and reviewed. They were mainly isolated from the genera of Aspergillus and Penicillium. More and more cyclodipeptides have been isolated from marine-derived and plant endophytic fungi. Some of them were screened to have cytotoxic, phytotoxic, antimicrobial, insecticidal, vasodilator, radical scavenging, antioxidant, brine shrimp lethal, antiviral, nematicidal, antituberculosis, and enzyme-inhibitory activities to show their potential applications in agriculture, medicinal, and food industry. View Full-Text
Keywords: cyclic dipeptides; 2,5-diketopiperazines; epipolythiodioxopiperazines; fungi; biological activities; occurrence; applications cyclic dipeptides; 2,5-diketopiperazines; epipolythiodioxopiperazines; fungi; biological activities; occurrence; applications
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Wang, X.; Li, Y.; Zhang, X.; Lai, D.; Zhou, L. Structural Diversity and Biological Activities of the Cyclodipeptides from Fungi. Molecules 2017, 22, 2026.

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