Next Article in Journal
Optimization of the Extraction Conditions for Buddleja officinalis Maxim. Using Response Surface Methodology and Exploration of the Optimum Harvest Time
Previous Article in Journal
Acaricidal Activity and Synergistic Effect of Thyme Oil Constituents against Carmine Spider Mite (Tetranychus Cinnabarinus (Boisduval))
Article Menu
Issue 11 (November) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Molecules 2017, 22(11), 1878;

Characterization of Free, Conjugated, and Bound Phenolic Acids in Seven Commonly Consumed Vegetables

Beijing Research Center for Agricultural Standards and Testing, No. 9 Middle Road of Shuguanghuayuan, Haidian Dist., Beijing 100097, China
Risk Assessment Laboratory for Agro-products (Beijing), Ministry of Agriculture, No. 9 Middle Road of Shuguanghuayuan, Haidian Dist., Beijing 100097, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 21 September 2017 / Revised: 31 October 2017 / Accepted: 1 November 2017 / Published: 1 November 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
Full-Text   |   PDF [673 KB, uploaded 2 November 2017]   |  


Phenolic acids are thought to be beneficial for human health and responsible for vegetables’ health-promoting properties. Free, conjugated, and bound phenolic acids of seven commonly consumed vegetables, including kidney bean, cow pea, snow pea, hyacinth bean, green soy bean, soybean sprouts and daylily, from the regions of Beijing, Hangzhou, and Guangzhou, were identified and quantified by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). Three vegetables, namely green soy bean, soybean sprouts, and daylily (Hemerocallis fulva L.), from the Beijing region contained higher concentrations of total phenolic acids than those from the Hangzhou and Guangzhou regions. The results indicated that the phenolic acid content in the seven vegetables appeared to be species-dependent. The highest content of phenolic acids was found in daylily, followed by green soy bean, while the least amounts were identified in kidney bean and hyacinth bean. Typically, phenolic acids are predominantly found in conjugated forms. Principle component analysis (PCA) revealed some key compounds that differentiated the seven vegetables. Green soy bean, compared to the other six vegetables, was characterized by higher levels of syringic acid, ferulic acid, vanillic acid, and sinapic acid. Other compounds, particularly p-coumaric acid, neochlorogenic acid, and caffeic acid, exhibited significantly higher concentrations in daylily. In addition, p-coumaric acid was the characteristic substance in cow pea. Results from this study can contribute to the development of vegetables with specific phytochemicals and health benefits. View Full-Text
Keywords: phenolic acid; vegetables; region; characteristic components; PCA phenolic acid; vegetables; region; characteristic components; PCA

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material


Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Gao, Y.; Ma, S.; Wang, M.; Feng, X.-Y. Characterization of Free, Conjugated, and Bound Phenolic Acids in Seven Commonly Consumed Vegetables. Molecules 2017, 22, 1878.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Molecules EISSN 1420-3049 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top