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Molecules 2016, 21(6), 791;

Cytotoxic and Pro-Apoptotic Effects of Cassane Diterpenoids from the Seeds of Caesalpinia sappan in Cancer Cells

State Key Laboratory of Quality Research in Chinese Medicine, Institute of Chinese Medical Sciences, University of Macau, Macau 999078, China
Department of Natural Products Chemistry, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201203, China
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Derek J. McPhee
Received: 1 May 2016 / Revised: 12 June 2016 / Accepted: 15 June 2016 / Published: 18 June 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
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The chemical study on the seeds of Caesalpinia sappan led to the isolation of five new cassane diterpenoids, phanginins R‒T (13) and caesalsappanins M and N (4 and 5), together with seven known compounds 612. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of NMR and HRESIMS analyses. The absolute configurations of compounds 1 and 4 were determined by the corresponding CD spectra. All the isolated compounds were tested for their cytotoxicity against ovarian cancer A2780 and HEY, gastric cancer AGS, and non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells. Compound 1 displayed significant toxicity against the four cell lines with the IC50 values of 9.9 ± 1.6 µM, 12.2 ± 6.5 µM, 5.3 ± 1.9 µM, and 12.3 ± 3.1 µM, respectively. Compound 1 induced G1 phase cell cycle arrest in A2780 cells. Furthermore, compound 1 dose-dependently induced A2780 cells apoptosis as evidenced by Hoechst 33342 staining, Annexin V positive cells, the up-regulated cleaved-PARP and the enhanced Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. What’s more, compound 1 also promoted the expression of the tumor suppressor p53 protein. These findings indicate that cassane diterpenoids might have potential as anti-cancer agents, and further in vivo animal studies and structural modification investigation are needed. View Full-Text
Keywords: Caesalpinia sappan; cassane diterpenoids; cytotoxicity; apoptosis; p53 Caesalpinia sappan; cassane diterpenoids; cytotoxicity; apoptosis; p53

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Bao, H.; Zhang, L.-L.; Liu, Q.-Y.; Feng, L.; Ye, Y.; Lu, J.-J.; Lin, L.-G. Cytotoxic and Pro-Apoptotic Effects of Cassane Diterpenoids from the Seeds of Caesalpinia sappan in Cancer Cells. Molecules 2016, 21, 791.

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