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Molecules 2016, 21(4), 438;

Analysis of Potential Amino Acid Biomarkers in Brain Tissue and the Effect of Galangin on Cerebral Ischemia

Institute of Chinese Materia Medica, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing 100700, China
School of Life Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031, China
School of Chinese Materia Medica, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing, 100029, China
College of Pharmaceutical Science, Hebei University, Hebei 071002, China
Pharmacy Department, Hebei Yanda Ludaopei Hospital, Hebei 065000, China
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Marcello Iriti
Received: 15 January 2016 / Revised: 23 March 2016 / Accepted: 28 March 2016 / Published: 6 April 2016
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Galangin, a potent scavenger of free radicals, has been used as an herbal medicine for various ailments for centuries in Asia. With complex pathophysiology, ischemic stroke is one of the most frequent causes of death and disability worldwide. We have reported that galangin provides direct protection against ischemic injury as a potential neuroprotective agent and has potential therapeutic effects on the changes of serum amino acids in ischemic stroke; however, the mechanism of the changes of amino acids in the ischemic brain tissue has not yet been clarified. In this paper, we explored brain tissue amino acid biomarkers in the acute phase of cerebral ischemia and the effect of galangin on those potential biomarkers. Finally, we identified that glutamic acid, alanine and aspartic acid showed significant changes (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01) in galangin-treated groups compared with vehicle-treated rats and the four enzymes associated with these three AAs’ metabolic pathways; GLUD1, SLC16A10, SLC1A1 and GPT were identified by multiplex interactions with the three amino acids. By metabolite-protein network analysis and molecular docking, six of 28 proteins were identified and might become potential galangin biomarkers for acute ischemic stroke. The data in our study provides thoughts for exploring the mechanism of disease, discovering new targets for drug candidates and elucidating the related regulatory signal network. View Full-Text
Keywords: amino acid; galangin; biomarkers; cerebral ischemia amino acid; galangin; biomarkers; cerebral ischemia

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Yang, R.; Chen, K.; Zhao, Y.; Tian, P.; Duan, F.; Sun, W.; Liu, Y.; Yan, Z.; Li, S. Analysis of Potential Amino Acid Biomarkers in Brain Tissue and the Effect of Galangin on Cerebral Ischemia. Molecules 2016, 21, 438.

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