Next Article in Journal
Evaluation of Olive Fruit Lipoxygenase Extraction Protocols on 9- and 13-Z,E-HPODE Formation
Next Article in Special Issue
Colour Evaluation, Bioactive Compound Content, Phenolic Acid Profiles and in Vitro Biological Activity of Passerina del Frusinate White Wines: Influence of Pre-Fermentative Skin Contact Times
Previous Article in Journal
The Apoptotic Effect of Ursolic Acid on SK-Hep-1 Cells is Regulated by the PI3K/Akt, p38 and JNK MAPK Signaling Pathways
Previous Article in Special Issue
Influence of Pre-Fermentation Treatments on Wine Volatile and Sensory Profile of the New Disease Tolerant Cultivar Solaris
Article Menu
Issue 4 (April) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Molecules 2016, 21(4), 431;

Phenolic and Chromatic Properties of Beibinghong Red Ice Wine during and after Vinification

Center for Viticulture and Enology, College of Food Science & Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083, China
Ji’an Municipal Bureau of Agriculture, Ji’an 134200, China
Institute of Food, Nutrition and Human Health, Massey University, Palmerston North 4442, New Zealand
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editors: Susan E. Ebeler and Helene Hopfer
Received: 25 November 2015 / Revised: 24 March 2016 / Accepted: 28 March 2016 / Published: 20 April 2016
(This article belongs to the Collection Wine Chemistry)
Full-Text   |   PDF [2293 KB, uploaded 20 April 2016]   |  


The phenolic and chromatic characteristics of a special red ice wine made from a Vitis amurensis × V. vinifera hybrid cultivar Beibinghong were studied. Results from two different vintages (2013 and 2014) showed that during vinification, the phenolic acid content increased, while the level of flavonoids (flavonols, flavan-3-ols, and anthocyanins) reduced by a variable extent. The color intensity and red % decreased together with a decrease in anthocyanin content. This was accompanied by an increase in hue as well as yellow %. The final phenolic content was found to be between 119.54 and 180.93 mg/L, with anthocyanins as the predominant phenolic group (92.06%–93.03%), of which 3,5-O-diglucosidic anthocyanins made up 53.55%–79.04%. Phenolic acids were the primary non-anthocyanin phenolics at about 6.64%–7.5%. The phenolic contents and color parameters of Beibinghong dry red wine and several V. vinifera dry red wines of superior color quality were also used in an attempt to clarify the relationship between phenolics and color in the Beibinghong red ice wine. By using Pearson correlation analysis and principal component analysis (PCA), it was found that 3,5-O-diglucosidic anthocyanins and protocatechuic acid were the only characteristic phenolics that differentiated Beibinghong wines from the other selected red wines from more traditional varieties. They were also the main phenolics to be positively correlated with the hue and yellow % of the wine at the early stages leading into maturation. Their presence might, therefore, explain the relatively high hue and yellow % of Beibinghong ice wine. View Full-Text
Keywords: Beibinghong red icewine; V. amurensis × V. vinifera hybrid; phenol; color; vinification Beibinghong red icewine; V. amurensis × V. vinifera hybrid; phenol; color; vinification

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Li, J.-C.; Li, S.-Y.; He, F.; Yuan, Z.-Y.; Liu, T.; Reeves, M.J.; Duan, C.-Q. Phenolic and Chromatic Properties of Beibinghong Red Ice Wine during and after Vinification. Molecules 2016, 21, 431.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Molecules EISSN 1420-3049 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top