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Molecules 2016, 21(2), 173;

Inhibitory Effect of Rosa rugosa Tea Extract on the Formation of Heterocyclic Amines in Meat Patties at Different Temperatures

College of Food Science and Technology, National Center of Meat Quality and Safety Control, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China
Jiangsu Synergetic Innovation Center of Meat Production, Processing and Quality Control, Nanjing 210095, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Derek J. McPhee
Received: 5 November 2015 / Revised: 17 January 2016 / Accepted: 22 January 2016 / Published: 30 January 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
Full-Text   |   PDF [2792 KB, uploaded 30 January 2016]   |  


In previous studies, heterocyclic amines (HCAs) have been identified as carcinogenic and a risk factor for human cancer. Therefore, the present study was designed to identify bioactive natural products capable of controlling the formation of HCAs during cooking. For this purpose we have evaluated the effect of Rosa rugosa tea extract (RTE) on the formation of HCAs in ground beef patties fried at 160 °C or 220 °C. RTE is rich in phenolic compounds and capable of inhibiting the formation of free radicals. The pyrido[3,4-b]indole (norharman) and 1-methyl-9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole (harman) contents were significantly (p < 0.05) decreased in RTE-treated patties at 220 °C. 9H-3-Amino-1-methyl-5H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole acetate (Trp-P-2) and 3-amino-1,4-dimethyl-5H-pyrido-[4,3-b]indole acetate (Trp-P-1) were not detected at 160 °C and were statistically (p < 0.01) reduced at 220 °C compared to the control. RTE remarkably inhibited the formation of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) at 220 °C (p < 0.001) and at 160 °C (p < 0.05). 2-Amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (AαC) and 2-amino-3-methyl-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]-indole (MeAαC) were only detected in the control group at 160 °C but were comparatively (p > 0.05) similar in the control and treated groups at 220 °C. 2-Amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ), 2-amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (MeIQ), 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), and 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]-quinoxaline (4,8-DiMeIQx) were not detected in any sample. Total HCAs were positively correlated with cooking loss. In the RTE-treated groups, 75% of the total HCAs were decreased at 160 °C and 46% at 220 °C, suggesting that RTE is effective at both temperatures and can be used during cooking at high temperatures to lessen the amount of HCAs formed. View Full-Text
Keywords: Rosa rugosa tea; heterocyclic amines; meat patties; beef Rosa rugosa tea; heterocyclic amines; meat patties; beef

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Jamali, M.A.; Zhang, Y.; Teng, H.; Li, S.; Wang, F.; Peng, Z. Inhibitory Effect of Rosa rugosa Tea Extract on the Formation of Heterocyclic Amines in Meat Patties at Different Temperatures. Molecules 2016, 21, 173.

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