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Open AccessArticle

Chemical Basis of the Fungicidal Activity of Tobacco Extracts against Valsa mali

Tobacco Research Institute of Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Qingdao 266101, China
Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Jianbo Xiao
Molecules 2016, 21(12), 1743;
Received: 14 November 2016 / Revised: 8 December 2016 / Accepted: 13 December 2016 / Published: 18 December 2016
Under pressure from social criticism and an unclear future, tobacco researchers have begun to seek alternative uses for the product. Here, we present our study on isolating tobacco compounds with fungicidal activity, which could be used as plant-derived pesticides. Using
Valsa mali as the target fungus, agar plate tests were conducted to evaluate the fungicidal activity of various tobacco extracts, including tobacco leaves extracts prepared with different solvents, extracts of different tobacco cultivars, and samples from different tobacco organs. Fungal growth morphology was used as the criterion to evaluate the fungicidal activity of tobacco extracts. Correlation analyses between the fungicidal activities and the chemical components of tobacco extracts indicated the major chemical constituents with fungicidal activity. Then, the active compounds were isolated and their effects on the ultra-microstructures of V. mali was analyzed using scanning- and transmission-electron microscopy. The results suggested that tobacco extracts prepared with solvents of weaker polarity had higher fungicidal activity, and the inhibitory activity of tobacco extracts against V. mali was also cultivar dependent. Furthermore, the fungicidal effects of tobacco flower extracts were higher than those of the leaf extracts. Chemical analysis indicated that cembranoids were the main fungicidal substances, which act by destroying the endometrial structure of the fungus. Tobacco cembranoids at 80 μg/mL could completely inhibit the growth of V. mali, with an EC50 value of 13.18 μg/mL. Our study therefore suggests that tobacco leaves and inflorescences are excellent plant resources for the biological control of V. mali. View Full-Text
Keywords: tobacco extracts; Valsa mali; fungicide activity; chemical components tobacco extracts; Valsa mali; fungicide activity; chemical components
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MDPI and ACS Style

Duan, C.B.F.A.T.E.V.S.; Du, Y.; Hou, X.; Yan, N.; Dong, W.; Mao, X.; Zhang, Z. Chemical Basis of the Fungicidal Activity of Tobacco Extracts against Valsa mali. Molecules 2016, 21, 1743.

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