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Tropane and Granatane Alkaloid Biosynthesis: A Systematic Analysis

1
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409-1061, USA
2
Office of Biotechnology, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011-1079, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this article.
Academic Editor: Michael Wink
Molecules 2016, 21(11), 1510; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21111510
Received: 30 September 2016 / Revised: 7 November 2016 / Accepted: 7 November 2016 / Published: 11 November 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diversity of Alkaloids)
The tropane and granatane alkaloids belong to the larger pyrroline and piperidine classes of plant alkaloids, respectively. Their core structures share common moieties and their scattered distribution among angiosperms suggest that their biosynthesis may share common ancestry in some orders, while they may be independently derived in others. Tropane and granatane alkaloid diversity arises from the myriad modifications occurring to their core ring structures. Throughout much of human history, humans have cultivated tropane- and granatane-producing plants for their medicinal properties. This manuscript will discuss the diversity of their biological and ecological roles as well as what is known about the structural genes and enzymes responsible for their biosynthesis. In addition, modern approaches to producing some pharmaceutically important tropanes via metabolic engineering endeavors are discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: tropane alkaloids; granatane alkaloids; secondary metabolism; metabolic engineering tropane alkaloids; granatane alkaloids; secondary metabolism; metabolic engineering
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kim, N.; Estrada, O.; Chavez, B.; Stewart, C.; D’Auria, J.C. Tropane and Granatane Alkaloid Biosynthesis: A Systematic Analysis. Molecules 2016, 21, 1510.

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