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Molecules 2016, 21(10), 1317;

A Potential Mechanism for the Anti-Apoptotic Property of Koumine Involving Mitochondrial Pathway in LPS-Mediated RAW 264.7 Macrophages

Department of Clinical Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128, China
Hunan Co-Innovation Center for Utilization of Botanical Functional Ingredients, Changsha 410128, China
Department of Hunan Agricultural Product Processing Institute, Changsha 410128, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Thomas J. Schmidt
Received: 16 July 2016 / Revised: 19 September 2016 / Accepted: 21 September 2016 / Published: 1 October 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Products and Inflammation)
PDF [3423 KB, uploaded 9 October 2016]


Koumine is a kind of alkaloid extracted from Gelsemium elegans (G. elegans). Benth, which has shown promise as an anti-tumor, anxiolytic, and analgesic agent. In our present study, the effect of koumine on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated RAW 264.7 cell apoptosis was evaluated. MTT assays showed that koumine obviously increased cell viability in LPS-mediated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Preincubation with koumine ameliorated LPS-medicated apoptosis by decreasing reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, which resulted in a significant decrease in the levels of nitric oxide (NO) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). In addition, koumine-pretreated RAW 264.7 macrophages exhibited reduction of LPS-induced levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 mRNA. Furthermore, pretreatment with koumine suppressed LPS-mediated p53 activation, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, caspase-3 activation, decrease of Bcl-2 expression, and elevation of Bax and caspase-3 expressions, suggesting that koumine might act directly on RAW 264.7 cells to inhibit LPS-induced apoptosis. It seems as though the mechanism that koumine possesses is the anti-apoptotic effect mediated by suppressing production of ROS, activation of p53, and mitochondrial apoptotic pathways in RAW 264 cells. Koumine could potentially serve as a protective effect against LPS-induced apoptosis. View Full-Text
Keywords: koumine; anti-apoptotic effect; mitochondria; caspase koumine; anti-apoptotic effect; mitochondria; caspase

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Yuan, Z.-H.; Liang, Z.-E.; Wu, J.; Yi, J.-E.; Chen, X.-J.; Sun, Z.-L. A Potential Mechanism for the Anti-Apoptotic Property of Koumine Involving Mitochondrial Pathway in LPS-Mediated RAW 264.7 Macrophages. Molecules 2016, 21, 1317.

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